Transportation in India notes

Transportation in India


Indian railways is the largest railway network in Asia and second largest in the world. Mumbai to Thane(34kms) the first railway route in India was started by lord Dalhousie on April 16, 1853. Indian railway board was established in 1905 and Indian railways was nationalised in 1950. 

Indian railways has three types of railway tracks. The slogan of Indian railways is “life line of the nation”.

Space between the railway tracks

Broad gauge – 1.676 mts

Meter gauge -1.000 mts

Narrow gauge – 0.762 and 0.616 mts

First railway minister of India after independence was John mitai, before independence was asif ali. Current railway minister is Piyush Goyal (2020)

Countries without a railway network are Lebanon, Mauritius, Libya, Argentina, Afghanistan, Papua, and New guinea.

  • Vande bharata -train 18 is the fastest train in India.
  • Nilgiri passenger train is the slowest train
  • Vivek express runs the longest distance from Dibrugarh (Assam) to Kanyakumari.
  • Samjotha express runs between India and Pakistan.
  • Maitree express runs between India and Bangladesh.
  • Fairy queen is the oldest working locomotive in Indian railways.
  • Vijayawada is the busiest railway station.
  • Vallarpadam bridge in Kerala is the longest railway bridge in India.
  • Ghum in west bengal is the highest railway station.
  • Pir Panjal tunnel is the longest railway Tunnel with 11.2 kms.
  • Gorakhpur railway station has the longest platform in the world.
  • First electric train : Deccan queen
  • First underground railway : kolkata metro
  • The Northern railway zone is the largest railway zone.
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji terminus in Mumbai is the first railway station in India.
  • Tejas express is the first private train. Running between Delhi and lucknow.
  • Uttar Pradesh has the longest railway line. 
  • The National Railway Museum is located in New Delhi.
  • The Darjeeling Himalayan railway, the nilgiri mountain railway, the kalka shimla railway and the Chhatrapati Shivaji terminus are listed in the UNESCO World Heritage sites on Indian railways.

Zones and headquarters of the Indian Railways

There are 18 railway zones in India. The south coast railway zone is a new railway zone and it’s headquartered at visakhapatnam.

East coast railwayBhubaneswar
Eastern railwayKolkata
South East Central railwayBilaspur
East Central railwayHajipur
North Easern railwayGorakhpur
South eastern railwayKolkata
South coast railwayVisakhapatnam
Western railwayMumbai
West Central railwayJabalpur
South Western railwayHubli
North West railwayJaipur
Central railwayMumbai 
Southern railwayChennai
Northern railwayBaroda house, New Delhi
South Central railwaySecunderabad
North Central railwayAllahabad
North East frontier Maligaon, guwahati
Kolkata metroKolkata

Road transport

The total length of the roads in India is 54.8 lakhs kms and it is the second largest in the world. Indian road network has been classified into national highway, state highway and district roads and rural roads. National highways are constructed and maintained by the Central Government, state highways are maintained by the respective state government while district highways are by the respective district boards.

Some important national highways 

NH 1 – Delhi to Amritsar

NH 2 – Delhi to kolkata

NH 3 – agra to mumbai

NH 4 – thane to Chennai

NH 16 – kolkata to Chennai (previously known as NH 5)

NH 44 – varanasi to Kanyakumari ( NH 44 is the longest national highway, previously known as NH 7)

NH 8 – Delhi to mumbai

NH 15 – Hazira to pathankot (passes through thar desert)

NH 24 – Delhi to lucknow

NH 27 – Allahabad to varanasi

NH 31 – patna to guwahati (life line of North East India)

NH 39 – numaligarh to indo Myanmar border (lifeline of Myanmar)

NH 44A kochi to Willingdon Island (smallest highway – 6 km)

NH 223 – great andaman trunk road 

Milestone colours help to distinguish a national highway, state highway and city highway.

HighwayMilestone colour
National highwayYellow and white
State highwayGreen and white
City highwayBlack and white
Pradan mantri gram sadak YojanaOrange and white


The waterways in India have been divided into internal waterways and oceanic waterways.

NW 1 – Allahabad to haldia on ganga river (length – 1620km)

NW 2 – Sadia to dhubri on Brahmaputra river 89km

NW 3 – kollam to kottapuram 168km

NW 4 – kakinada to marakkanam along godavari and krishna rivers 1095km

NW 5 – mangalagiri to paradeep and talcher to dhamra on Mahanadi and brahmani rivers. 

Must Read : Sea Ports In India

Air Transport

International airports in India

Name of the international airportPlace
Rajiv GandhiHyderabad
Chhatrapati ShivajiMumbai
Kempe gowdaBengaluru
GoaDabolim, goa
Lokpriya gopinath BordoloiGuwahati
Sardar Vallabhbhai PatelAhmedabad
Indira GandhiDelhi
Shri guru Ram Das jiAmritsar
Dr. Babasaheb AmbedkarNagpur
Netaji Subhash Chandra BoseKolkata
Veer SavarkarPort Blair
Jai Prakash NarayanPatna
AranmulaPathanamthitta, Kerala
Lal Bahadur ShastriBabatpur, varanasi
Choudhary charan singhLucknow
Coachi (private) first greenfield airportKochi, Kerala

Also read

Soils in India

Mountains in India

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