The Solar System

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The Solar System

Our Solar System consists of a sun, eight planets and their satellites and many asteroids, meteors, and comets.

The terrestrial planets : These planets are closer to the sun and they have rocky surfaces. Mercury, Venus, earth and mars are terrestrial planets or inner planets.

The Jovian planets : These planets are gaseous in nature and larger in size. They are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Planets : 

Mercury : 

  • It is the smallest planet in the solar system.
  • Closest planet to the sun.
  • It has no moons

Venus : 

  • It is the hottest and brightest planet in the solar system
  • It is also known as the morning and evening Star, earth’s twin.
  • It has no satellites.
  • Venus is a very hot planet.
  • Rotates clockwise on its axis.

Earth : 

  • Earth is the largest planet in terrestrial planets and fifth largest in the solar system.
  • It is known as the Blue planet.
  • It has one moon (lunar).

mars : 

  • Mars has two moons: phones and demos.
  • It is known as the Red planet.

Jupiter : 

  • Largest planet in the solar system.
  • Jupiter has 67 satellites, gaynamade is the largest satellite in the solar system.

Saturn :

  • Saturn has bright rings which are made up of ice and dust particles.
  • It has 62 moons, titan is the largest satellite of Saturn.

Uranus : 

  • Uranus has 27 satellites.
  • It appears in greenish colour.
  • It was discovered by sir William Hersiel.
  • Venus and Uranus rotate clockwise. ( East to West )
  • It is an extremely cold planet.

Neptune : 

  • Last planet in the solar system.
  • Neptune has 18 moons.
  • It is surrounded by methane rings.

Pluto :

  • It is a dwarf planet.
  • In 2006, the international astronomical union declared that Pluto would no longer remain a planet.

The Sun : 

  • The Sun is 150 million kms away from the earth.
  • The surface of the sun is called a photosphere.
  • Outer layer of the sun is made up of a thin hot gas called corona.
  • Hydrogen converts to helium duce to nuclear fusion within the sun releasing a large amount of heat and light.
  • Light takes 8.5 seconds to reach earth from the sun.

Important points 

  • Asteroids are minor planets. The Asteroid belt is situated between Mars and Jupiter. Ceres is the largest asteroid in the solar system.
  • Meteors are shooting stars. When the meteors land on the earth ‘s surface, they are called meteorites. Lunar lake in Maharashtra was created by a meteorite. Hoba is the largest meteorite on earth.
  • Group of stars is called Galaxy. Group of galaxies is called a cluster.
  • Nearest galaxy to the earth is Andromeda.
  • Nebula is a cloud of gas and dust in space. Nebula turns into a star.
  • The star alpha Centauri (proxima Centauri) is the nearest Star to the solar system.
  • A light year is the distance. Light travels in one year at the speed of 300,000 km per second.
  • To identify the Stars, astronomers divided the sky into constellations.

The solar system notes pdf – Download

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Soils in India

Rivers in india

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