The Mughal Empire
The Mughal emperors are Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan, Aurangzeb.
Babur (1526 – 1530)
● Zahir-ud-din but officially known as Babur (means tiger).
● First battle of Panipat (1526) : defeated Ibrahim Lodi and the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India.
● Battle of kanwah (1527) : defeated Sangram Singh (Rana sanga) of Mewar.
● Battle of Chanderi (1528) : defeated another Rajput ruler, Medini Rai of Chanderi.
● Battle of geography (1529) : defeated the Afghan cheifs lead by Muhammad Khan Lodi.
● Gunpowder was first used in his period.
● Died in 1530.
● His autobiography is titled tuzik-i-baburi or Baburnama. It is considered as one of the greatest autobiographies in the world.
● He built four mosques at Panipat, Agra Sambhal, and Ayodhya.
Humayun (1530 – 1540 and 1555 – 1556)
● Real name was Nasir-ud-din Muhammad, Humayun means fortunate.
● Humayun name, the autobiography of Humayun written by his sister gulbadan begum.
● He was born to Mahimbegum and Babur.
● In the battle of Chunar fought in 1538, shershah was defeated and was pardoned.
● In the battle of Chausa in 1539, Humayun was defeated by sher shah and escaped from the battleground.
● In the battle of Kanauj or Bilgram in 1540. Humayun was finally defeated and lost his kingdom to shershah.
● Rana Prasad virasal, the ruler of amarkot gave shelter to Humayun, where his wife Hamida Banu gave birth to Akbar in 1542.
Humayun defeated Sikandar Suri, the grand son of shershah in the battle of sirhind fought in 1555 and regained the throne. Thus the Mughal was reinstated after 15 years.
● He built dinpanah at Delhi as his second capital.
● The Mughal architecture actually began with the mausoleum of Humayun in Delhi. It was built by hamida banu begum which was declared by UNESCO as a world heritage centre.
● Humayun died in 1536 when he accidentally fell from the staircase of his library named sher mandal at Delhi.
Akbar (1556 – 1605)
● Real name was jalal-ud-din Muhammad. Akbar means great.
● Bairam Khan represented him in the second battle of Panipat in 1556, against hemu Vikramaditya.
● Bairam Khan coronated him at Kalanaur (Punjab) when he was fourteen.
● In 1561, Akbar defeated baj bahadur, the ruler of Malwa.
● In 1564, he conquered garha katanga kingdom by defeating Rani durgavati.
● Won Gujarat in 1572. It was in order to commemorate his victory of Gujarat that Akbar got the buland darwaza constructed at fatehpur sikri.
● Battle of Haldighati was fought one jan8 1576, in which Maharana Pratap was defeated by Akbar’s army.
● He abolished the pilgrimage tax, jizya tax.
● He ordered the construction of a house of worship named ibadat khana.
● Akbar founded a new religion known as tauhid-i-illahi, and later renamed it as din-i-ilahi.
● Mahesh das or raja birbal, a Brahmin was the only Hindu to join in it.
● Changed capital from Agra to fathepuri sikri.
● He built the red fort in Agra, Lahore fort, allahabad fort.
● Akbar built his own tomb at Sikandra in Agra. Akbar’s son Jahangir completed the construction.
● Constructions in Fatehpur sikri : Diwan-i-am(hall for public audience) and diwan-i-khas(hall of private audience), jama masjid, dargah of Salim Christi, buland darwaza jodhabai palace, sultanate palace, birbal palace, ibadat khana, panch Mahal.
● He developed Nasim Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir.
● Ralph Fitch : he was the first Britishers to visit India. He visited Agra, Fatehpur sikri and varanasi during the reign of Akbar.
● Tansen was the greatest musician in the court of Akbar.
He invented a new instrument called Rudra veena and authored two books on music titled Sangita sara and rajamala.
● Abul Fazal wrote akbarnama, ain-i-akbari.
● Padma Shankara was a Jain Sanskrit scholar from Gujarat in the court of akbar. He wrote akbarshahi shringara darpan.
Jahangir (1605 – 1627)
● Real name was nur-ud-di Muhammad Salim, know as Jahangir which means conqueror of world.
● His autobiography tuzuk-i-jahangiri and iqbal nama written by his court historian mutammad Khan.
● The rebellion of prince khusrau was the most significant incident of Jahangir’s life. Jahangir suppressed this rebellion and imprisoned khusrav.
● The other event in Jahangir’s life was his marriage to mehr-un-nisa, the widow of Sher Afghani in 1611. The title of Nur Jahan was conferred on her.
● The ruler of England, James 1 sent two ambassadors to the court of Jahangir to obtain trade permission and tax concession for English east India company. 1)captain Hawkins Jahangir conferred him the title of Khan. 2)sir Thomas roe.
● He prohibited smoking and drinking alcohol.
● Animal slaughter was banned.
● Free hospitals to the poor.
● Zanjeer-e-adil was installed at Agra fort to provide speedy justice to the people.
● Jahangir was more interested in painting than architecture.
● Noor Jahan built the tomb of her father itamad-ul-daula.
● Jahangir built Shalimar garden in Kashmir.
Shahjahan (1627 -1658)
● Real name Khurram, Shahjahan means emperor of the world.
● Shahjahan policy of annexing Deccan was quite successful. Ahmednagar was annexed while Bijapur and Golconda accepted his overlordship.
● Made his son, Aurangazeb, the viceroy of Deccan.
● Dar shikoh was the eldest son of Shahjahan. He was a great scholar.
He translated Bhagavad Gita into Persian language and 52 Upanishads translated into Persian language named as sir-i-akbari.
● Aurangabad imprisoned his father Shahjahan at Agra fort in order to capture the throne. Shahjahan remained under house arrest from 1658 until his death in 1666.
● Shahjahan reign is considered the golden age of the Mughal Empire.
● 2 Frenchmen, vernier and tavernier, and an Italian adventurer manucci, visited during his reign.
● Peter mundy visited during Shahjahan’s rule.
● Mughal architecture reached its peak during Shahjahan’s period.
● Construction : Suresh Mahal, khas Mahal, jasmine palace and moti masjid were built by Shahjahan in Agra.
● He constructed the Taj Mahal, it is the tomb of his wife Mumtaj Mahal (her original name arjumand Banu begum) and he too was buried here.
● It was built in between 1631 to 1653 under the supervision of ustad isa.
● Jama masjid was another monument built by Shahjahan near red fort in Delhi.
● Jagannadha pandit belonged to Shahjahan’s period and wrote two kavyas on the holy Ganges namely Ganga lahar iand rasa Gangadhar.
Aurangzeb ‘Alamgir’ (1658 – 1707)
● Alamgir means conqueror of the world.
● Aurangazeb first defeated the imperial army in the battle of dharmat and then defeated a force led by data in the battle of samugarh.
● He reimposed jizya tax.
● In his rule, various rebellions took place- jat peasantry at Mathura, santnami peasantry in Punjab and bundelas in Bundelkhand.
● He was called darvesh or Zinda pir.
● He also forbade sati.
● He ordered the arrest and execution of ninth sikhguru, guru Tegh bahadur.
● Constructions : Badshahi mosque in Lahore, moti masjid in Delhi, bibi ka maqbara ( it is the tomb of Aurangazeb’s wife rabiya-ud-durrani. It resembles the Taj Mahal.
● Mahabharat was translated as roznama
● Ramayan was translated by Abdul Qadir Badaun.
● Bhagavata purana was translated by todarmal.
Rajatarangini was translated by shahabadi. ● Lilavati was translated by Abul Faizi.
Shershah Sur dynasty (1540 – 1555)
● Surs, belong to the Afghan race.
● Shershah Sur was the founder of this dynasty.
● His original name was Farid.
● Sultan Nuhani gave him the title Sher Khan.
● He revived ala-ud-din’s system of horse branding and keeping descriptive rolls of soldiers.
● He introduced the silver ‘rupiya’ and the gold coin (mohar)
● He restored the old imperial road called grand trunk road from the Indus river to Sonargaon, in Bengal.
● Built his tomb at Sasaram in Bihar.
● Built a new city on the bank of Yamuna river (present day purana Qila)
● Malik Mohammad Jaisi composed Padmavat (in hindi) during his reign.
● Abbas Khan Sarwani was his historian, who wrote tarikh-i-mubarak.
● Sikandar Sur was the grandson of sher shah Sur and last ruler of the Sur dynasty.