The Delhi sultanate
Delhi sultanate was the first Muslim Empire to unite and rule the whole of India.
● He was the founder of this dynasty.
● Capital – Lahore.
● He was slave Muhammad ghori, served as a military general.
● He didn’t assume the title of sultan. Instead, he took the titles of Malik, sipahsalar and lakh baksh.
● He built a city called Mehrauli.
● He died while playing chaugan in 1210.
● He constructed the first mosque ( quwwat-ul-istam ) in Delhi.
● Dhai-din-ka-jhonpra is also a mosque in Ajmer was constructed by him.
● He started the construction of qutub minar in Delhi, which was dedicated to a famous Sufi Saint of the time, qutubuddin Bakhtiar kaki. ● Qutubminar was later finished by iltutmish.
● Iltutmish was the slave of Qutubuddin Aibak and married his daughter. He served as the governor of Badaun before ascending the throne.
● He shifted capital to Delhi.
● He introduced new coins called tanka (silver), and jital(copper).
● He introduced a new administration system called iqta.
● Chihalgani/chalisa/crop of forty : it was a group of forty slaves, which was established by him.
● She was the only Muslim women ruler of Delhi sultanate.
● Balban was the member of chihalgani.
● He introduced three Persian traditions : sijda(prostration), paibos(kissing of monarch’s feet), nauroz(new year day of Iran).
● He broke up the chihalgani system.
● Diwan-i-arizi : central army department established by balaban
● Diwan-i-baridi : intelligence bureau department
● Famous poet Amir Khusrau was the regency by balban.
● Kaiqubad was the last ruler of the slave dynasty. ● Kaiqubad was killed by jalal-ud-din khalji.
● Liberal sultan of Delhi sultanate
● His original name was Ali gurshap.
● He was famous as the second Alexander.
● He was the first Muslim ruler to cross vindhyas and conquer south India.
● Ala-ud-din Khilji got the title sikandar-i-sani.
● Iqtas were abolished by him.
● He set up a new revenue department, diwan-i-mustakhraj.
● He introduced two new systems in the army : daghi(branding of horses), chahata/huliya(muster roll of the soldiers.
● Biswa was declared to be the standard unit of measurement.
● First sultan who increased tax in doab area and fixed at 50%.
● Construction by ala-ud-din Khilji : also minar, also darwaja, hazaar station Mahal, jamait khana mosque.
● He declared himself the khalifa.
● He was killed by khusrav.
● Khusrav was defeated and killed by Ghazi Malik.
● Ghazi Malik ascended the throne as ghiyasuddin tughlaq.
● He was the first sultanate who accepted the title of ghazi.
● He was the first sultanate who reduced the land revenue.
● First sultanate who established canals for irrigation.
● He also built a new city of Tughlakabad near Delhi.
● He was killed by Juna Khan.
Muhammad bin tughlaq
● His original name was Juna Khan.
● He transferred his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in the Deccan and renamed it as daulatabad.
● He introduced token currency. The experiment of token currency had succeeded in China, the Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan, introduced paper currency.
● He increased the land revenue taxes in doab.
● He was given taqawi/sondhar (loan) to the farmers.
● Diwan-i-kohi (agricultural department) was created by him.
● Jain priest jin prabhasuri came in muhammad bin tughlaq’s court.
● Ibn Battuta came to Tughlaq’s court. He was appointed as qazi, ambassador to China by Muhammad bin tughlaq.
● Vijayanagar Empire was established by Harihar and bukka.
● Bahamani kingdom was founded by Hasan gangu.
● Muhammad bin tughlaq died in 1351 A.D, on his way to thatta (Sindh).
Firoz Shah Tughlaq
● He developed many canals and introduced an irrigation tax( haqq-i-sharb).
● Jaziya tax imposed on Brahmins by him.
● Firozabad, Hussar, Junupur city was established by Firoz Shah Tughlaq in the memory of his elder brother junakhan.
● He wrote his autobiography named futuhat-i-firoz shahi. It is the first autobiography in India.
● Important departments established by Firoz Shah Tughlaq
● Diwan-i-bandagan or bandagahi : slave department.
● Diwan-i-khairat : donation department to help the poor.
● Diwan-i-ishtihaq : pension.
● Daftar-i-rozgari : modern employment bureau.
● Dar-ul-shafari : free hospitals.
● Last king of the Tughlaq dynasty.
● During Nasir-ud-din reign Timur lang invaded India.
● Sayyid khizr Khan was the founder of the dynasty.
● Tarikh-i-mubarak Shahi was written by sirhindi.
● Ala-ud-din Alam Shah was the last ruler of the dynasty.
● He was the founder of this dynasty.
● They were the Afghans whereas the rulers of earlier four dynasties were Turks. ● He introduced new copper coins, which were famous as bahlul coins.
● His mother was Hindu.
● His original name was Nizam Khan.
● He built Agra city and transferred the capital from Delhi to Agra.
● The Tomb of Sikandar Lodi is situated in Agra and it has a double dome.
● First battle of Panipat : in between Ibrahim and Babur.
● Ibrahim was defeated by Babur and died.
● Babur occupied Delhi and Agra and led the foundation of the Mughal Empire in