Teeth and Digestive System

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Teeth and Digestive System


  • They are produced in two sets – temporary and permanent.
  • The teeth are four types : incisors, canines, premolars and molars.
  • A tooth consists of 3 regions : crown, neck and root.
  • The crown is exposed. It is covered by a shining material called enamel. 
  • Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body.
  • There are 4 incisors, 2 canines, 4 premolars and 6 molars in the upper jaw and exactly the same arrangement in the lower jaw. The Full  number, i.e. 32.
  • The premolars and the molars are called grinding teeth. The last molars are called the wisdom teeth.
  • Linked with pharynx.

Digestive System

The human alimentary canal


Stages in digestive system







  • In the mouth, the food is called bolus.
  • In the stomach, the food is called chyme.
  • Digestion initiates right from mouth, where Salivary gland secretes the Saliva in the mouth in which two types of enzymes are found, ptyalin and maltase.
  • Around 1.5 litres of saliva is secreted in human on an average day, it is acidic in nature (pH 6.8)
  • Also contains lysosome which kills bacteria.
  • Through a food pipe or Oesophagus (25cm long tube), food reaches into the stomach. Food is carried by peristaltic movement.
  • Gastric juices produced in the stomach help in digestion of food. Also contains HCl which kills bacteria and provides an acidic medium.
  • Pepsin and Renin are the enzymes in the gastric juice.
  • Hydrochloric acid makes the food acidic by which the ptyalin reaction of the saliva ends.
  • Pepsin breaks down the protein into peptones and Renin breaks down the Caseinogen into Casein.
  • Small intestine (duodenum+jejunum+ileum) : here the food is mixed with bile (from liver) and pancreatic juice(from pancreas).
  • Bile converts food from acidic nature to alkaline nature.
  • Pancreatic juice from pancreas combines with food and it contains the following enzymes:
  • Trypsin: It converts the protein and peptone into polypeptides and amino acids.
  • Amylase: It converts the starch into soluble sugar.
  • Lipase: It converts the emulsified fats into glycerol and fatty acids.
  • In the small intestine, intestinal juices secrete and it is alkaline in nature and around 2 litres of intestinal juice secreted per day.
  • Intestinal juice contains the following enzymes:
  • Erepsin: It converts the remaining protein and peptone into amino acids.
  • Maltase: It converts the maltose into glucose.
  • Sucrase: It converts the sucrose into glucose and fructose.
  • Lactase: It converts the lactose into glucose and galactose.
  • Major part of digestion takes place in the small intestine.
  • Length of small intestine is 6mt (20ft) and large intestine 1.5mt (5ft).
  • Both jejunum and ileum have numerous finger-like projections called the villi. Villi absorbs the products of digestion.
  • Large intestine (caecum, colon, rectum) : it receives undigested food from the small intestine and absorbs water.
  • Cellulose digestion takes place in caecum. It is very large in herbivores.
  • The remaining waste material is sent to rectum and discharged from anus.

Also Read:

Respiratory System

Human eye and its defects

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