Soils in India

soils in India

According to its location, soils can be categorised

Residual or sedimentary soil : They are formed by breaking up of parent rocks. They include black soil, red soil, laterite soil, desert soil.

Transported soil : These soils are transported and deposited by rivers and winds.

There are 8 types of soils are found in india.

Alluvial soil

These soils are formed by the river depositions. They are rich in minerals and chemical ingredients. This soil is also known as riverine soil, because this soil occurs along rivers. Alluvial soil is found in indus, ganga, Brahmaputra, godavari, Mahanadi, and Krishna river deltas. Alluvial soil occupies 43% of the land in india. Alluvial soil is very fertile and suitable for cultivation of rice, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, gram and oil seeds.

The alluvial soil can be classified into two types based on its age.

Bhangar : bhangar is old alluvial soil. 

Khadar : Khadar is younger alluvial soil. It is very fertile soil.

Black soil 

It is in dark colour and suitable for cultivation of cotton, sugarcane, cereals, vegetables and rice. These are popularly known as black cotton soil. Black soils are formed by volcanic eruption. These soils are found in the Deccan area.

Red soil

These soils are found in low Rainfall areas. Red soil is in Red colour, because of the presence of iron oxide. Red soil forms the second largest soils group in india. Red soil covers almost the whole of peninsular and north east India. Potato, ground nuts, oil seeds, cashew nuts are cultivated. Its pH value ranges from 6.6 to 8.0.

Laterite soils

These soils are formed by weathering of rocks under conditions of high Rainfall and temperature. The word ‘later’ means brick in Latin. Due to heavy rains, Lime and silica will be leached away from the soil. Laterite soils are found in Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and along the top slopes of peninsular mountains. Tapioca, cashew nuts, Ravi, sugarcane, tea, coffee, eucalyptus are cultivated.

Peaty/marshy soils

These soils are formed in high Rainfall and humidity regions. This soil contains high acidic nature. Cultivating crops are not possible in this soil. These soils are found in Kerala.

Desert soils

Desert soil is a mixture of 90% sand and 10% soil. Desert soil is found in Rajasthan, Punjab and haryana. Dates, spices, millets, bajra and wheat are cultivated.

Forest and mountain soils

These soil mainly occur in highland as well as at low elevations. These are infertile for the cultivation of field crops. Saffron, tea, coffee, and fruits are cultivated.

Saline soil

Saline soils have developed in dry climatic conditions. These are found in Gujarat, eastern and western coastal areas.

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