Project Tiger and Tiger Reserves in India
Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s tenure. Kailash Sankhala was the first director of Project Tiger. As the Bengal Tiger is the national animal of India, this project aims to stem the dwindling population of the big cats and work to increase their numbers.
The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protecting them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the distribution of tigers in the country. The project’s task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests. Funds and commitment were mastered to support the intensive program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project. The government has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.
The monitoring system M-STrIPES was developed to assist patrol and protect tiger habitats. It maps patrol routes and allows forest guards to enter sightings, events and changes when patrolling. It generates protocols based on these data, so that management decisions can be adapted
The NTCA was constituted under the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2006. Tigers being only found in the Asian continent, India is the home to around 80 percent of these Tigers. The MoU with Nepal specifies the prevention of trans-boundary illegal trade in Wildlife. Project Tiger was primarily launched in 1973 in Palamau Tiger Reserve while some sources say it was launched in 1973 in Corbett National Park.
India is home to 80 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010, 2,226 in 2014 and 2967 in 2018. The Indian increase played a big role in driving up global populations as well; the number of wild tigers globally rose from 3,159 in 2010 to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum.
Tiger Reserves in India
|Si No.||Tiger Reserve (Year of Creation)||State|
|3||Kanha (1973–74)||Madhya Pradesh|
|9||Sunderbans (1973–74)||West Bengal|
|12||Buxa (1982–83)||West Bengal|
|14||Namdapha (1982–83)||Arunachal Pradesh|
|15||Dudhwa (1987–88)||Uttar Pradesh|
|16||Kalakad-Mundanthurai (1988–89)||Tamil Nadu|
|18||Pench (1992–93)||Madhya Pradesh|
|20||Bandhavgarh (1993–94)||Madhya Pradesh|
|21||Panna (1994–95)||Madhya Pradesh|
|25||Pakke or Pakhui (1999-2000)||Arunachal Pradesh|
|27||Satpura (1999-2000)||Madhya Pradesh|
|28||Anamalai (2008–09)||Tamil Nadu|
|33||Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve(Kali) (2008–09)||Karnataka|
|34||Sanjay-Dubri (2008–09)||Madhya Pradesh|
|35||Mudumalai (2008–09)||Tamil Nadu|
|39||Biligiri Ranganatha Temple (2010–11)||Karnataka|
|41||Sathyamangalam (2013–14)||Tamil Nadu|
|42||Mukandra Hills (2013–14)||Rajasthan|
|44||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (1982–83)||Andhra Pradesh|
|46||Pilibhit (2020)||Uttar Pradesh|
|50||Kamlang (2016)||Arunachal Pradesh|
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve (Andhra Pradesh) is the largest Tiger Reserve in India. Bhoramdev Tiger Reserve is supposed to be the 51st Tiger Reserve in India. Bor Tiger Reserve (Maharashtra) is the smallest Tiger Reserve in India.