Nervous system and brain

Nervous system and brain

Nervous system

  • it is only found in animals.
  • Neuronal is the unit of the nervous system.
  • Nervous tissue is composed of two main cell types : neurons and glial cells.
  • Neurons transmit nerve messages.
  • Glial cells are directly in contact with neurons and often surround them.
  • Largest cell of our body is the neuron only.
  • The central nervous system (CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.
  • The peripheral nervous system connects the CNS to the other parts of the body, and is composed of nerves (bundles of neurons).
  • Functions of the three parts of the neuron : 
  • Aron : it conducts a message away from the cell body.
  • Dendrite : it receives information from aron to another cell and conducts the message towards the cell body.
  • Cell body : it contains nucleus, mitochondria and other cell organelles. It is mainly concerned with the maintenance and growth.
  • The junction between nerve cell and other cell is called a synapse.
  • The space between two cells is known as the synaptic cell.
  • The function between two neurons is called a ganglion.


  • Brain is covered by 3 layers ( meninges).
  • 1 Dura mater (toughest), 2 arachnoid mater, 3 pia meter.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid is filled between the meninges. Increased cerebrospinal fluid may result in meningitis.
  • Brain has the following parts.
  • Cerebrum : largest part of the human brain. It is at the top most part of the brain.
  • 2 distinct parts : outer grey matter or cerebral cortex and inner white matter.
  • Grey matter controls activities such as speech, taste, smell, hearing. It is the seat of intelligence, reasoning, learning, pain , fear, etc.
  • Cerebellum : concerned with equilibrium of the body and brings coordination and control of muscular activities of the body.
  • Medulla oblongata : lower part of the brain and is connected to the spinal cord. 
  • Controls involuntary actions (respiration, heartbeat, flow of blood in blood vessels, secretion of glands, etc).
  • Thalamus : a major clearinghouse for the information going to and from the spinal cord and the cerebellum.

Also Read

Circulatory System

Respiratory System

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