Mountains and Mountain passes in India
There are three types of Mountains in India.
Fold mountains : these mountains are formed because of moments of tectonic plates towards each other.
Block mountains : these mountains are created by the tectonic plates when they move away.
Volcanic mountains : these mountains are formed when the molten magma within the earth comes out to the surface. When the ash and lava cools down it forms a cone shape.
The Himalayas stand like a strong and long wall between Indian subcontinent and central asia. These are young fold mountains in the world. The Himalayas consist of three ranges and are distinguished on the basis of their height.
The Himadri : The name himadri is because it is covered with snow throughout the year. These are also known as greater Himalayas or the inner Himalayas. This range of Himalayas in Kashmir is known as Karakoram range and it consists of the highest peak K2. World’s highest peak, Mt. Everest (8,848m) and some other peaks makalu(8481m), manaslu(8,156m), annapurna(8,078m), all in Nepal, nanga Parbat (8,126m) in Kashmir and also the Highest peak in india, Kanchenjunga in Sikkim (8,598m). Ganga, sharda, ghagra, kosi and gandak rivers originate from this range.
The average height of the himadri range is 6000m. Siachen and baltoro glaciers are situated in this range. Pases in this range are zoji la in greater Himalayas, Karakoram pass in Kashmir, bara lapcha la pass and shipki la pass in himachal pradesh, thaga la and niti in Uttarakhand, banihal pass in pir panjal range, photu la in zaskar range and khardung la in Ladakh range. This region is drained by Indus, Jhelum and Chenab, dal and wular (freshwater lakes), pangong tso and tso moriri (salt water lakes).
The Himachal : These are also known as middle or lesser Himalayas and parallel to the Himadri range. Doons lie between the himachal and shiwalik ranges. Pir panjal(kashmir), Dhaula Dhar, mussoorie, mahabharat (Nepal) are the important ranges of himachal. The hill stations in lesser Himalayas are Dharamsala, Shimla, Mussoorie, Nainital, Almora, Ranikhet, Chakrata, Chail, etc. The average altitude of Himachal varies between 6000m-4500m.
The Shiwalik : These mountains are also called outer Himalayas and it is not a continuous range. They are famous for valleys. Ex : valley of national park in Uttarakhand, silent valley in Jammu and Kashmir. Shiwaliks have an altitude varying between 900 and 1100. The discontinuity of Shiwaliks forms duars which are helpful for tea cultivation.
Purvanchal : these are mountains of Himalayas in north east India.
Purvanchal consists of mishimi, patakaibum hills (Arunachal Pradesh), milir, barali hills (Assam), Manipur hills, Tripura hills, mizo hills(Mizoram), gharo, khasi, jaintia, north cachar hills(Meghalaya). The names of the hills are named after the tribal groups inhabiting the regions. Mishimi hills are the highest mountains in Purvanchal. Mizo hills are also known as lushai hills. The average elevation of Purvanchal is above 1000m. This region is rich in biodiversity, preserved by local communities. Most of the communities practice jhumming. It is known as shifting or slash and bub cultivation.
The Aravallis are oldest fold mountains in the world and residual mountains in india. Highest peak in the Aravallis is mt. Guru shikhar (1722m). Mt. Abu is the hill station in this range. The Aravallis are stretched in Rajasthan, Gujarat and near to Delhi.
The Vindhya and Satpura Ranges
These are block mountains and are composed of sandstones, quartzites and shales. The Vindhya range is located in Madhya Pradesh and eastern part is in uttar pradesh and bihar. The eastern part is known as kaimur range(highest range of vindhya). The Highest peak in vindhya is sadbhavna shikhar (2,467m)
The Satpura Range extends from the narmada valley to the tapti valley. The eastern part of Satpura is known as maikal. The central part of Satpura is known as mahedo. The south part is garwalaghar(tapti originates from this range). Rajpipla hills of Gujara, Mahadeva hills pachmarhi, Ranchi upland, hazaribagh hills are important hills of satpura. The highest peak in Satpura is dhupgarh(1350m).
The Western Ghats
They are started from Maharashtra and followed by Goa, Karnataka and end at nilagiri. In Maharashtra these mountains are known as sahyadri. Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers originate from these mountains, these rivers flow east and enter bay of bengal. Harischandra range divides the godavari and krishna in Maharashtra. The Western Ghats are Continuous and have an average elevation of 900-1100m. Highest peak in western ghats is Kalsubai (1,646m).
The Eastern Ghats
The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous mountains. They have an average elevation of 600m. They are parallel to the east coast, started in Odisha and ended in nilgiri. These are residual mountains. The Highest peak in eastern ghats is Junagadh (1690m) in Araku, visakhapatnam.
The western and the eastern ghats meet at the Nilgiris hills. These mountains are known as Blue mountains. Dodabetta(2637m) is the highest peak in Nilgiris.
The Anamalai Hills
The other name of Annamalai hills is elephant hills. These are situated in Kerala. Annaimudu (2695m) is the highest peak in South India.
The cardamom hills or yela mala are located in the south east of kerala.
Mountains and Mountain passes in India PDF : Download
Mountain passes in india :
Mountain pass is a connectivity route through the Mountain ranges.
Zoji la pass : jammu and kashmir
It connects Srinagar with kargil and leh.
It has been created by the Indus river.
Pir panjal pass : jammu and kashmir
This pass was closed after partition.
Banihal pass : jammu and kashmir
It is situated in pir panjal range.
Banihal pass is also called as jawahar lal nehru tunnel.
Khardung la pass : jammu and kashmir
It is the highest motorable pass in the country and it connects leh and Siachen glacier.
Shipki la pass: himachal pradesh
The Satluj river enters India through this pass and it connects Shimla and Tibet by road.
Bara lacha pass : himachal pradesh
It links mandi and leh by road.
Rohtang pass : himachal pradesh
It is situated in pir panjal range and links kullu, lahaul and leh, Manali, and Spiti valley.
Mana pass : Uttarakhand
It is situated in the greatest Himalayas and connects Tibet(Manasarovar) and Uttarakhand.
Niti pass : Uttarakhand
It connects Uttarakhand and Tibet (Manasarovar).
It is a tri junction point for India, Tibet and Nepal.
Lipu pass: Uttarakhand (lampiya dhura pass)
Important borders pass for Trade with China.
Nathu la pass: Sikkim
This pass was closed in 1962 and reopened in 2006. It is located on the India-China border. It is also called an ancient silk route and one of the trading border posts between India and China.
Jalep la pass: Sikkim
The pass has been created by the tista river and connects Bhutan.
Likhapani pass: Arunachal Pradesh
This pass remains open throughout the year for transport and trade with Myanmar.
Dipu pass : Arunachal Pradesh
This pass is an alternative route to Myanmar.
Shencotta gap: tamilnadu and Kerala
It joins madurai in tamilnadu with Kottayam in Kerala.
Dihang pass: Arunachal Pradesh- Myanmar
Yong Yap pass : Arunachal Pradesh-china
Dipher pass : India-china-myanmar
Kumjung pass : Arunachal Pradesh- Myanmar.
Duncan pass : south Andaman to little Andaman.
Palghat gap : it is a major break in western ghats and connects kerala and tamilnadu.
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