Making of the Indian constitution
In 1935, the Indian National Congress demanded a constituent assembly to frame the constitution of India. British government accepted the demand in 1940, which is known as the August offer. In November 1946, the constituent assembly was formed by the cabinet mission plan. The strength of the constituent assembly was to be 389. The total number is a combined 296 seats of British India (292 members were from 11 governor provinces and 4 from chief commissioners) and 93 seats of princely states. They were elected by proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and not by the people of India. However, the princely states decided to not join in the constituent assembly.
On December 9, 1946 the constituent assembly held its first meeting. Dr. Sachidananda Sinha was elected as the temporary president of the constituent assembly. Later, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the president of the constituent assembly and two vice Presidents h.c. Mukherjee and v.t krishnamachari were elected.
Jawaharlal Nehru presentes a objective resolution on December 13,1946, which is known as the preamble of the constitution. The objective resolution was adopted by the assembly on January 22, 1947.
Committees and its head of the constituent assembly
Union committee – Jawaharlal Nehru
Provincial constitution committee – sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Drafting committee – Dr. B.R Ambedkar.
Fundamental rights committee – sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Minorities committee – H.C Mukherjee
Northeast Frontier tribal areas and Assam excluded and partially excluded committee – gopinath Bardoli
Rules of procedure committee – Dr. Rajendra Prasad
States committee – Jawaharlal Nehru
Steering committee – Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Drafting committee is the most important committee among all of the committees. It was set up on August 29, 1947. The task of this committee was to prepare and draft the constitution. It consisted of 7 members.
- Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
- Alladi Krishnaswamy ayyar
- N madhava rao
- Gopala Swami ayyar
- Syed Mohammad saadullah
- T T krishnamachari
The first draft of the constitution was published in February 1948.
The second draft was published in October 1948.
It sat only for 141 days to prepare it’s draft.
The final draft was introduced by Dr B R Ambedkar on November 4, 1948(first reading). The assembly discussed it for five days till November 9,1948. The second reading was held on November 15, 1948 and ended on October 17,1949. The third reading of the draft started on November 14,1949. Dr. B R Ambedkar moved a motion that the constituent as settled by the assembly be passed. The motion was declared as passed on November 26,1949 with the signatures of 284 members of the assembly out of total 299 members. The constitution as adopted on November 26, 1949, contained a preamble, 395 articles and 8 schedules. Some of the articles on the constitution came into force on the same day itself are citizenship, elections, provisional parliament, temporary provisions, and short title contained in articles 5, 6, 7 ,8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392, and 393. The remaining major part of the constitution came into force on January 26, 1950. This day is celebrated as the republic day. This date was selected because on this day in 1930 that purna swaraj day was celebrated.
- Constituent assembly adopted the national flag on July 22, 1947 and national anthem and national song on January 24, 1950. It elected Dr Rajendra Prasad as the first president of India on January 24, 1950.
- It had 11 sessions over 2 years, 11 months and 18 days and had gone through the constitution of 60 countries and the draft constitution was considered for 114 days. The total expenditure on making the constitution amounted to 64 lakhs.
- On January 24, 1950, the constituent assembly held its final session and continued the provisional parliament till the formation of a new parliament after the first general elections in 1951-1952.
- The idea of constituent assembly was given by M. N Rao.
- Constituent assembly rectified India’s membership of the commonwealth in may 1949.
- American constitution took only 4 months to complete their work.
- Nasiruddin Ahmed named the drafting committee.
- Symbol of the constitution is an elephant.
- B. N Rao was appointed as the constitutional legal advisor to the assembly.
- Indian Constitution was handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada in italic style and beautified by Nandalal Bose and Beohar rammanohar Sinha. The Hindi version was done by Vasant krishna vaidya.