Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization is also known as Harappan civilization, bronze age civilization and proto-historic civilization. The Harappans were first to use bronze in India (Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin). The remains of this civilization were first discovered by Manson. Their main deity was mother goddess. Another deity worshipped by the Indus people was pashupati Mahadeva. A square seal at mohenjo daro has the image of pashupati. He is surrounded by an elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, buffalo and deers. Phallus and yoni worship was also prevalent. Many trees, animals, birds and stones were worshipped.
The script of Indus valley civilization is pictographic. The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters show that it was written from right to left and left to right in the second line. This style is called ‘boustrophedon’. Potter’s wheel was in use. Their pottery was red and black pottery. Grid pattern was followed in the city planning. Underground drainage system was present in every city except banwali. The caste system was not yet developed during this period. Food grains were stored in granaries.The scholars have identified the people of four different races living together in this civilization. They are, mongoloids, proto-australoid, alphionoid, Mediterranean.
Extent of the IVC
● Northern boundary : Manda in Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost site.
● Southern boundary : daimabad in Maharashtra.
● Eastern boundary : Alamgirpur in Uttar Pradesh.
● Western boundary : sutkagendor in Balochistan province of Pakistan.
Major cities of IVC
Mohenjodaro – Sindh (Pakistan)
R.D banerjee discovered mohenjodaro. Mohenjo Daro means mound of the dead. A Buddhist stupa of kushans times was discovered in the upper layer of this mound. Great bath, a great granary, and an assembly hall were found here. Great bath was excavated by John Marshall. A bronze dancing girl and a steatite image of a bearded man have been found.
Harappa – punjab (Pakistan)
Harappa was excavated by R.B dayaram Sahani and Rao bahadur. Six granaries, a wooden coffin, a measuring scale, Potter’s wheel and Bullock cart like structure, a figure of male dancer were found. Harappans wore cotton and woollen clothes.
Chanhudaro – sindh (Pakistan)
It was the only city of IVC without a citadel. An ink pot and bronze cart were found here. Chanhudaro was excavated by R.C Majumdar.
Lothal – Gujarat
Lothal means mound of dead in Gujarati language. It was the chief port town of the IVC. A seal of Persian gulf and a seal having a ship image, a fire altar, a chess board, a terracotta horse image, a grain of rice and a bronze measuring scale were found. Double burial i.e burying of two bodies in a single grave was identified. Lothal was excavated by s.r.rao.
Kalibangan – Rajasthan
Kalibangan means black bangles. A fire altar, ploughed land with furrows. Kalibangan was excavated by b.b. lal.
Banwali – Rajasthan
It was the only city where the grid and the drainage systems were absent. A terracotta image of plough, a seal having the image of a tiger were found.
Surkotada – Rann of kutch
The remains of a horse were found here. The system of pot burial was also identified here.
Dholavira – Gujarat
Largest and the latest site in India is Dholavira in Gujarat. A reservoir and a stadium were found at dholavira.
Sumerian or mesapotamian civilization : it flourished in the Tigris and the Euphrates river valleys in the present day Iraq. The people of Indus valley civilization had cultural and commercial contacts with the Sumerian civilization. Mesapotamian inscriptions written in cuneiform script reveal that they imported sindom ‘cotton’ from meluha ‘india’.
Chinese civilization : this civilization developed in the drainage basin of the river Hwang Ho in China. Hwang Ho means yellow river, which is known as the sorrow of China.
Egyptian civilization : Egyptian civilization developed in the Nile valley of Egypt in North Africa.
Archeological Survey of India
The British founded the ASI in 1861, with Alexander Cunningham as the first director general who is known as the father of Indian archaeology. It was revived by lord Curzon in 1904, and sir John Marshall was appointed as the director general.
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Also Read : Pre Historic Age in India