Circulatory System

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Circulatory System

  • William Harvey discovered the blood circulation system.
  • The human heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the body via the circulatory system.
  • Circulatory system contain four parts (i) Heart (ii) Arteries (iii) Veins (iv) Blood
  • Cardio is the biological term of te heart. It remains safe in the pericardium.
  • Heart has 4 chambers : 2 upper atriums and 2 lower ventricles.
  • Heartbeat of a normal human is 72 beats/minute.
  • Right atrium receives impure blood from the body which goes into the right ventricle. From here the blood went into the pulmonary artery which sends it to the lung for purification. After purification, it is collected by the pulmonary vein which brings it back to the heart in the left atrium. From the atrium, it vents into the left ventricle. Now, this purified blood goes into the aorta for different organs of the body. 
  • The pump out blood, the heart chambers undergo alternate contraction is called systole and diastole.
  • Vein is the vessel which carries the blood from the body towards the heart.
  • Vein contains impure blood i.e. carbon dioxide mixed blood.
  • pulmonary vein is the exception which always carries pure blood.
  • Pulmonary vein carries the blood from lungs to the left atrium
  • Artery is the vessel which carries the blood from the heart towards the body.
  • Artery contains pure blood i.e. oxygen mixed blood.
  • The artery carrying blood to the muscles of the heart is called coronary arteries.
  • Aorta : The largest artery in the body. It carries oxygen rich blood away from the heart to vessels that reach the rest of the body. 
  • Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the blood returns from the circulation. 
  • Capillaries: The smallest of the body’s blood Vessels. Oxygen and glucose pass through capillary walls and enter the cells. Waste products such as carbon dioxide pass back from the cells into the blood through capillaries.
  • Cardiac Valves (Heart Valves) : Any of the four heart valves that regulate the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart.  
  • Interventricular Septum : interventricular septum is the stout wall separating the lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart from one another. 
  • Lungs : One of a pair of organs in the chest that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from the body. 
  • Myocardium: The muscular substance of the heart, the three layers forming the outer wall of the human heart.  
  • Pulmonary Artery : The pulmonary artery and its branches deliver blood rich in carbon dioxide (and lacking in oxygen) to the capillaries that surround the air sacs. 
  • Pulmonary Circulation : The circulation of the blood through the lungs.  
  • Superior Vena Cava : The large vein that carries blood from the head, neck, arms, and chest to the heart. 
  • Vena Cava : A large vein which returns blood from the head, neck and extremities to the heart. 
  • Endothelium is the innermost layer of blood vessels that consists of just a single layer of cells. 
  • A heart attack occurs when one or more of the coronary arteries become blocked.
  • Sphygmomanometer measures the blood pressure.
  • Normal blood pressure in a healthy person is 120/80 mm Hg.
  • Arteriosclerosis : hardening or loss of elasticity of arteries.

Also Read :

Digestive System

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