Chapter 2 : Resources

Chapter 2 : Resources

Minerals  

Minerals are natural occurring substances having specific physical properties and chemical  composition. Minerals are base for the development of economy of a country. India is  endowed with variety of minerals which are concentrated in some regions of the country. 

The Mineral Belts of India 

— Mineral and energy resources are the raw materials for most of the things we use.  Human beings themselves are essential components of resources.  

— They transform material available in the environment into mineral and energy resources  and use them. 

— More than 90% of our mineral wealth is concentrated in the Chota Nagpur plateau  region. Over three-fourth of India’s reserves of coal are in Gondwana troughs. Madhya  Pradesh carries good reserves of manganese ores, coal, limestone and bauxite. 

— Tamil Nadu has workable deposits of lignite, manganese, mica and limestone. Karnataka  produces all the gold of India, besides iron, porcelain clays and chrome-ores. Andhra  Pradesh has good reserves of inferior quality of coal and mica. Kerala possesses enormous  concentration of heavy mineral sands. Rajasthan possesses copper, silver, lead, zinc,  uranium, mica, precious stones and low grade coal. Gujarat and Assam produce  petroleum. Gujarat also supplies about 90% of country’s flourite yield. Further, Assam  has reserves of lignite. West Bengal supplies coal and iron ore. 

National Mineral Policy 2019  

The National Mineral Policy 2019 includes provisions which will give  boost to mining sector. 

Some of the provisions are:  

— Introduction of Right of First Refusal for RP/ PL holders.  

— Encouraging the private sector to take up exploration.  

— Encouragement of merger and acquisition of mining entities.  

— Creation of dedicated mineral corridors to boost private sector  mining areas.  

— Proposes to grant status of industry to mining activity to boost  financing of mining for private sector and for acquisitions of  mineral assets in other countries by private sector.  

— It also mentions that long term import-export policy for mineral  will help private sector in better planning and stability in  business. 

— The policy also mentions rationalisation of reserved areas given  to PSUs which have not been used should be rationalised and to  put these areas to auction, which will give more opportunity to  private sector for participation.  

— The policy also mentions to make efforts to harmonise taxes,  levies and royalty with world benchmarks to help private sector.  

Distribution of Minerals  

Iron 

— About 80% of the total iron ore reserve of the country is the  haematite. At present, India is the fourth largest iron ore  producing country of the world.  

— The major iron ore producing regions of the country are  Gurumahisani, Sulepat and Badam Pahar in Mayurbhanj district  of Odisha; Baramjader group extended in Keonjhar and  Sundargarh districts of Odisha, Singhbhum district of  Jharkhand, The extracts of iron ore are found in Bailadila of  Bastar district in Chhattisgarh; Sandur hills at Bellary Hospet  region and Bababudan hills at Chikmanglur district in Karnataka.  

Manganese  

— It occurs mainly in the Dharwar system of rocks; this is one of the  major raw materials used in iron and steel industry.  

— The major manganese regions are Keonjhar and Koraput region  in Odisha; Balaghat and Chhindwara in Madhya Pradesh;  Nagpur and Bhandara in Maharashtra; Panchmahal in Gujarat;  Vishakhapatnam and Srikakulam in Andhra Pradesh;  Singhbhum in Jharkhand; Udaipur and Banswara in Rajasthan.  

Copper  

— The major copper producing regions are Singhbhum in  Jharkhand; Jhunjhunu, Bhilwara, Alwar and Udaipur in  Rajasthan; Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh; Guntur and Nellore  districts in Andhra Pradesh. The Khetri mine in Rajasthan has  been a major copper extracting region, since the age of Indus  valley civilisation.  

Bauxite  

— Aluminium is extracted from the bauxite ore. The  major bauxite extracting regions in India are Ranchi  and Palamau in Jharkhand; Surguja, Kabirdham  and Bastas in Chhattisgarh; Shahdol and Balaghat  in Madhya Pradesh; Kolaba, Thane and Ratnagiri in  Maharashtra; Belgaum and Bababudan hills in  Karnataka; Palni, Javdi and Shevaroy hill regions in  Tamil Nadu.  

— Presently, India is the sixth largest bauxite producer  and has fourth largest bauxite reserves (4%) of the  world.  

Chromite  

— The metal chromite is made with the mixture of iron  and chromium and is used in refractive works and  chemical industries. 

— The largest producer of chromite in the country is  Odisha (90%). Here, Keonjhar and Cuttack districts  are important in this regard. The other chromite  extracting regions are Chitradurga and Hassan in  Karnataka, Ratnagiri and Bhandara in Maharashtra,  Singhbhum in Jharkhand and Kondapalli in Andhra  Pradesh. India is the third largest chromite  producing country of the world.  

Diamond  

— This is the purest form of carbon and is the hardest  substance found in the nature. At present, Madhya  Pradesh is the most important state in terms of  diamond extraction. Here, the major diamond mines  are in Panna and Satna districts.  

— Raichur and Gulberg of Karnataka and Anantapur and  Krishna basin of Andhra Pradesh are other regions.  

Mica 

 — Mica’s insulating properties have made it a valuable  mineral in electronics industry. Andhra Pradesh,  Jharkhand and Rajasthan respectively are its major  producers. India is the largest producer of mica in  the world (60% of world production). The maximum  portion of the country production is meant for export.  

Gypsum  

— This is used in the production of fertilisers, cement,  sulphur etc. It is formed in the sedimentary rocks.  Its largest producer is Rajasthan (90%).  

— The largest producing region in Rajasthan is  Hanumangarh district. The other districts where  gypsum is found are Bikaner, Jodhpur, Nagpur and  Jaisalmer. Also, gypsum is producer in Doda district  in Jammu and Kashmir and Kutch district in  Gujarat. 

Uranium  

— In India, uranium is found in the rocks of Dharwar and  Archean series, pegmatite, monazite sands (largest  source) and cheralite. India produces about 2% of  world’s uranium.  

— The most important region for uranium mining is the  Jaduguda region of Singhbhum district in Jharkhand.  The other regions where it is found are Nellore in  Andhra Pradesh, Jaipur in Rajasthan.  

— The newly found Tummalapalle uranium reserves in  Andhra Pradesh is found to be one of the biggest  uranium reserves in the world.  

Thorium  

— India possess largest deposits of thorium reserves in  the world, followed by Brazil, Australia and USA. If the  proper technology is developed, the thorium deposits  can fulfill the power requirements of India permanently.  

— It is extracted from the monazite sand which are  formed by the disintegration of Precambrian rocks.  These monazite extracts are mainly found in coastal  region of Kerala.  

Energy Resources  

— The main power resources of India are coal, petroleum,  natural gas and electricity. In recent years, the  development of non-conventional sources of energy is  also getting increasing attention of the planners.  Generation of nuclear power is being geared up to  contribute significantly to the overall availability of  energy.  

— Energy resources can be classified as conventional and  non-conventional.  

Conventional Resources  

— These resources are non-renewable and ecologically  hazardous.  Some conventional sources of energy are:  

Coal  

— Coal in India is geologically classified into two  categories, namely Gondwana and Tertiary. Gondwana  coal accounting for 98% of the total reserves and 99%  of total production of coal in India. 80 out of 113 major  coal fields are located in the rock systems of the lower  Gondwana age. Tertiary coal bears coal of younger age,  mainly confined to the extra peninsular region. This  coal has low carbon and high percentage of moisture  and sulphur.  

— Raniganj located in upper valley of Damodar river, is  the most important and the largest coal area of India. It  produces about 35% of the total coal production.  

— A good quality of bituminous coal is found in Jhariya,  Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura, Ramgarh etc., of Jharkhand.  Tatapani Ramkola of Chhattisgarh, Talcher coal area of Odisha  (Brahmani river valley) and Singreni coal area (Krishna  Godavari river valley) of telengana are other major important areas of coal.  

— Tertiary coal is found in Neyveli (Tamil Nadu, famous for  lignite) and Palana (Rajasthan). It is estimated that the largest  reserve of lignite is in Mannargudi of Tamil Nadu.  

— The main regions of Gondwana rocks are found in West  Bengal, Jharkhand and Odisha from where 76% of the total  coal is produced.  

Petroleum  

Three main oil regions from where mineral oil is found are as  follows:  

(i) Assam region It is a country’s most important and ancient oil  region. Its main areas are Digboi, Naharkatiya and MoranHugrijan field. Natural gas is also found in Moran- Hugrijan area.  Arunachal Pradesh has oil reserves at Manabhum, Kharsang  and Charali, in Tripura, Mamunbhanga, Manu, AmarpurDambur areas.  

(ii) Gujarat region The major oil regions in Gujarat are Gulf of  Khambhat and Ankleshwar while oil regions are extended upto  Navgaon, Kosamba, Olpad, Dholka, Mehsana, Kalal etc.  

(iii) Mumbai high region Mumbai high region, 176 km away from the  Mumbai coast, is also an important oil region. From here, the  mineral oil has been extracted since 1975. Basin located South  of Mumbai High also has significant oil reserves. At present,  mineral oil is also extracted from the region offshore in  Krishna-Godavari river valley.  

— Oil Refineries There are a total of 22 refineries in India: 17 in  the public sector, 3 in the private sector and 2 as joint venture. 

Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPPs)  

◆ Ministry of Power, Government of India has launched a  unique initiative in 2005-06 under the provision of the  Electricity Act 2003 to facilitate the development of Ultra  Mega Power Projects (UMPPs) each having a capacity of  about 4000 MW, at both the coal pitheads and coastal  locations aimed at delivering power at competitive cost to  consumers by achieving economies of the scale.  

◆ The Central Government in order to award the projects to  different players has taken a tariff based competitive bidding  route using super critical technology on Build, Own and  Operate (BOO) basis. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) is the  technical partner and Power Finance Corporation (PFC) under  the Ministry at Power is the nodal agency.  

◆ In total, 16 UMPPs have been envisaged, out of which four  have already been awarded. These are:  

— Sasan Power Limited, Sasan UMPP, Madhya Pradesh  

— Coastal Gujarat Power Limited, Mundra UMPP, Gujarat  

— Coastal Andhra Power Limited, Krishnapatnam UMPP,  Andhra Pradesh  

— Jharkhand Integrated Power Limited, Tilaiya UMPP,  Jharkhand  

Natural Gas  

— At present production of natural gas is at the level of  around 87 million standard cubic meters per day. The  main producers of natural gas are Oil and Natural Gas  Corporation Limited (ONGC), Oil India Limited (OIL) and  JVs of Tapti, Panna-Mukta and Ravva.  

— Almost 70% of India’s natural gas reserves are found in  the Bombay High basin and in Gujarat. Offshore gas  reserves are also located in Andhra Pradesh coast  (Krishna-Godavari basin) and Tamil Nadu coast (Cauvery  basin). Onshore reserves are located in Gujarat and  North-Eastern states (Assam and Tripura).  

— Natural gas has been utilised in Assam and Gujarat since  the 60s. There was a major increase in the production  and utilisation of natural gas in the late 70s with the  development of the Bombay High fields and again in the  late 80s, when the South Basin field in the Western  offshore was brought to production.  

— Natural gas is currently the source of the LPG produced in  the country. LPG is now being extracted from gas at  Duliajan in Assam, Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh, Hazira  and Vaghodia in Gujarat, Uran in Maharashtra, Pata in  Uttar Pradesh and Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu.  

Non-Conventional or Renewable  Resources  

— The spectrum on renewable energy sources covers solar  energy, wind energy, biomass, hydropower and hydrogen  on one side and the new techniques, such as, fuel cells,  electric vehicles, ocean energy, geothermal energy etc., on  other side. These sources besides being renewable are also  non-polluting and environment-friendly.  

Total Renewable Energy Installed Capacity  

Source Total Installed Capacity (MW) 

Wind Power 36,625  

Solar Power 29,410  

Small Hydropower 4,593  

Biomass Power and Bagasse  Cogeneration  9,103  

Waste to Power 138  

Total 77,641  

— According to an estimate, India has a non-conventional  energy potential of 195000 MW. The Ministry of  Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) created in 1992,  is the nodal agency of the Government of India for all  matters relating to non-conventional/renewable energy; the  promotional and financial aspects are looked after by the  Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA).  Some renewable resources are given here: 

Wind Energy  

— The present Wind Energy Programme is aimed at the  development of cost-efficient technology for harnessing the  vast potential in the country. Wind survey projects are under  various stages of implementation in 22 states of the country.  Domestic policy support for wind power has led India to  become the country with the fifth largest installed wind power  capacity in the world. China is the leading wind power  producer followed by USA, Germany and Spain.

— A Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-Wind) is being set-up  in Chennai, along with a Wind Turbine Test Station at Kayattar  (Tamil Nadu).  

— The Union Power Ministry has extended waiver of inter-state  power transmission charges and losses for solar and wind  power projects commissioned till 31st March, 2022 in order to  give boost to clean energy sources.  

Solar Energy  

— Owing to its location on the Tropic of Cancer, India is fortunate  enough to receive higher amount of solar energy which is  equivalent to 5000 trillion kwh per year. Most parts of the  country have 300 clear sunny days in a year and it is possible  to generate 20 MW solar power per square kilometer of land  area.  

— Even during the minimum availability of radiation in the month  of December, the average amount of solar energy is about 500  calories per sq cm per day. In India, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and  Ladakh are the ideal areas for the development of solar energy.  

— World‘s largest solar steam cooking system for 15000 people’s  meal has been installed at Tirumala (Andhra Pradesh). Dish  solar cookers are being promoted in villages. Solar air heating  system is being popularised for drying of agricultural and  industrial products.  

— Solar Power Projects Announced in November 2009, the  Government of India proposed to launch its Jawaharlal Nehru  National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on  Climate Change with plans to generate 1000 MW of power by  2013 and up to 20000 MW grid-based solar power 2000 MW  of off-grid solar power and cover 20 million sq metres with  collectors by the end of the final phase of the mission  in 2020. The mission aims to achieve grid parity  (electricity delivered at the same cost and quality as  that delivered on the grid) by 2020.  

— In May 2011, India’s first 5 MW of installed capacity  solar power project was registered under the Clean  Development Mechanism (CDM). The project is in  Sivaganga district, Tamil Nadu.  

— Gujarat has been a leader in solar power generation  and contributes two-third of the 900 MW of  photovoltaics in the country. The state has  commissioned Asia’s biggest solar park at Charanka  village. The park is already generating 214 MW solar  power out of its total planned capacity of 500 MW.  With a view to make Gandhinagar a solar city, the  State Government has launched a Roof-Top Solar  Power Generation Scheme.  

— The French group AREVA Solar, is currently engaged  in constructing a 250 MW Concentrated Solar Power  (CSP) installation which will become the largest CSP  installation in Asia. A 4000 MW Ultra Mega Green  Solar Power Project is being built near Sambhar lake  in Rajasthan.  

— The Shakti Sthala Solar Park having total capacity of  2,000 megawatts (MW) was launched in March, 2018  in Tumkur district of Karnataka. It is world’s largest  solar park. The park ties in with Central Government’s  scheme to generate 100 gigawatts (GW) of solar power  by 2020.  

— Large scale solar energy collector is called as solar  pond. India is a first Asian country to establish a solar  pond in Bhuj, Gujarat.  

Bio-Energy or Biomass  

— Bio-energy is the energy derived from conservation of  biomass, where biomass may be used directly as fuel  on processed into liquids and gases, which can play a  significant role in providing solution to rural energy  crisis. It is a clean and cheap source of energy which  improves sanitation and hygiene, removes the  drudgery of women folk and produces enriched  organic manure for use in agriculture.  

— Biomass may be obtained through bio-degradable  materials, like animal dung, human night-soil, kitchen  wastes, water hyacinth, agricultural residues and city  wastes etc.  

Ocean Energy  

— India has favourable sites in the Gulf of Cambay, Gulf  of Kachchh and the estuary of Hugli with total  estimated potential of 1000 MW.  

— The output of ocean energy is higher during monsoon  period and along the West coast than during the post  monsoon period and along the East coast. The main 

problem in exploiting the ocean energy for power generation is the high  cost involved in the construction of civil works and also the problem of  firming up the fluctuation energy ouput.  

Geothermal Energy 

— It is the heat energy in the Earth’s intention. The total potential for  geothermal energy in India is about 600 MW which is equivalent to about  5130 million tonnes of coal. Hot water springs geothermal energy could be  tapped from hot water springs. 

— Prospective areas for such energy lie in the North-West Himalayan ranges  (Puga valley in Jammu and Kashmir and Manikaran area in Himachal  Pradesh), West coast running through Maharashtra and Gujarat, the  Narmada-Son valley and the Damodar valley.  

Nuclear Energy 

— Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after  thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources of electricity.  

— In October 2010, India announced its updated plan to reach a nuclear  power capacity of 63000 MW by 2032.  

— India aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear power by  2050. Because India is non-signatory to the Nuclear Non- proliferation  Treaty due to its weapons programme, it was for 34 years largely  excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which has hampered  its development of civil nuclear energy until 2009. Due to these trade  bans and lack of indigenous uranium, India has uniquely been  developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.

Water Resources 

— The average annual water availability of the  country is assessed as 1869 Billion Cubic  Metres (BCM), of this total utilisable water  resource is assessed as 1123 BCM, of  which 690 BCM is surface water and  433 BCM replenishable groundwater  resources. With the growing population, the  per capita availability of water at the  national level has been reduced from 5177  cubic metres in 1951 to the estimated level  of 1800 cubic metres in 2005, with  variation in water availability in different  river basins.  Water resources are as follows:  

— Surface water In India, surface flow takes  place through 14 major river systems and 48  medium river systems. They share 83% of  the drainage basin. The surface flow is  further enlarged by addition of about 450  cubic kilometre of freshwater from  groundwater flow while about 50 cubic  kilometre are added to run-off from irrigated  areas.  

— Groundwater Groundwater resource are  abundant only in the Northern and coastal  plains. Underground reservoir of fresh water  is called aquifers. Presently, about 25% of  the groundwater is being used. Agriculture  uses maximum amount of groundwater.  

— Rainwater India receives about 3 trillion  cubic metre3 of water from rainfall. This is a  huge resource and perhaps largest in the  world. However, almost 90% of this  precipitation falls between mid-June and  October, out of which India utilises only 10%.  

— Inter Linking of rivers in India The  interlinking of the rivers in India is an  initiative of the government in order to  transfer the surplus water from Northern  Indian rivers to the water deficit areas of  the Southern India by linking the rivers of  North and South India.  

The rationale behind these initiatives are:  

— Unevenly distributed surface water of India.  

— Himalayan rivers are perennial and  Peninsular rivers are seasonal.  

— Flood problems of North and drought  problems of South, India can also be solved by  linking the rivers. 

National Perspective Plan  

National Water Development Agency (NWDA), Ministry of Water  Resources, Government of India in 1980, finally come out with  National Perspective Plan for the water resources development.  The outline of this projects has two components. These are

 1. Himalayan rivers development 

2. Peninsular rivers development  

The Himalayan rivers development envisages construction of storage  reservoirs on the main Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers and their  principal tributaries along with the inter-linking canal system to  transfer surplus flow of the Eastern tributaries of the Ganga to the  West, apart from the linking of the main Brahmaputra with the  Ganga.  

The Peninsular rivers development is divided into major parts, These  are:  

(a) Interlinking of Mahanadi-Godavari-Krishna and Pennar-Cauvery  

(b) Interlinking of West flowing rivers, North of Mumbai and South of  Tapi  

(c) Ken-Chambal link  

Sagarmala National Perspective Plan 2016 

The Sagarmala programme, led by the Ministry of Shipping, Road  Transport and Highways, aims to the focus area in port connectivity,  where over 80 projects are being planned. These include connectivity  infrastructure projects like a heavy-haul rail corridor to evacuate large  volumes of coal, freight-friendly expressways to enable efficient  movement of containers on key routes and the development of  strategic inland waterways.  The other set of projects aims to tap into the potential of port-led  industrialization to boost industrial and export growth along the  coastline. This will be realized through 14 Coastal Economic Zones  (CEZs) along the coastline. Finally, the potential of coastal  communities will be harnessed by focussed skill-development to  support port-led industrialization.  

— Development and Management of Water Resources Water is a  cyclic resource, which can be used again and again after  cleaning. Therefore, the best way to conserve it, is its judicious  use.  

— Rainwater Harvesting It is one of the most effective methods of  water management and water conservation. The term is used to  indicate the collection and storage of rainwater used for human,  animal and plant needs. It involves the collection and storage of  rainwater at the surface or in sub-surface aquifier.  Artificial recharge to groundwater is a process by which the  groundwater reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that  under natural conditions of replenishment.  

— The targeted areas for rainwater harvesting are:  

— Where groundwater level are declining at a regular basis.  

— Where substantial amount of aquifier has been desaturated.  

— Where availability of the groundwater is inadequate in lean months. 

 Marine Resources  

— India has a long coastline of more than 7500 km. Its  marine resources are spread over in the Indian  ocean, Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal. The Exclusive  Economic Zone (EEZ) of the country has an area of  2.02 million square kilometre comprising 0.86 million  square kilometre on the West coast, 0.56 million  square kilometre on the East coast and 0.6 million  square kilometre around the Andaman and Nicobar  islands. 

— The East coast supports activities such as agriculture  and aquaculture, while a number of industries are  supported on the West coast. Tourism has emerged  as a major economic activity in coastal states such as  Goa, Kerala and Odisha.  

— Fisheries in the Indian marine environment comprise  15 pelagic and the same number of demersal  fisheries. Marine fish production from capture  fisheries in India has increased by about six-fold  during the past six decades.  

— India is a major seafood exporting country. Export  earnings from the marine sector crossed 12000 crore  in 2010-11. Marine products are now exported from  India to nearly 100 countries. About 1 million people  in 3651 villages of India situated along the coast are  employed in marine capture fisheries.  

— Mangrove cover in India has been estimated at  approximately 315000 hectare confined mainly along  the East (Odisha and West Bengal) coast and  Andaman and Nicobar islands.  

— Coral reefs are found in the Palk Bay, Gulf of  Mannar, Gulf of Kutch, Central West coast of India,  Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands and  recently, reported from the Maharashtra coast.  

Development of Drugs from  Ocean in India  

The Indian programme in this field is servicing ongoing  projects at different research and development  laboratories. The Nodal Institute, Central Drug Research  Institute, Lucknow have been entrusted with the  responsibility of coordination and implementation.  A Mission Mode Programme on the development of drugs  from sea has been initiated, which focus on product  development in major areas, such as anti-anxiety,  larvicidal, anti-diabetic, anti- bacterial, anti-tumor/cancer  and antihyperlipidemic.

— Polymetallic Nodules Programme Polymetallic nodules  is like jewel in a shrine. They contain magnesium,  copper, nickel, cobalt, mollybdenum, iron, lead,  cadmium and vanadium. 

— India has got rights of about 75000 square kilometre in Central  Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) for harnessing these nodules lying on  the seabed at 4000 m to 6000 m water depth.  The Polymetallic Nodules Programme consists of four components,  which are: 

(i) Survey and exploration  

(ii) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) 

 (iii) Technology development (mining) 

 (iv) Metallurgy (extraction of element)  

— Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) This  programme has two components, namely:  

— Capacity building and development of infrastructure for research and  development, survey and training for ICMAM.  This first component covers four activities: 

(i) Development of GIS based information system for 11 critical  habitats in the coastal and marine areas in India.  

(ii) Determination of waste assimilation capacity at selected estuaries  along coastal areas of India.  

(iii) Development of guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment.  

(iv) Preparation of Model Integrated Coastal and Marine Area  Management Plans.  

— Under the component on infrastructure, training, laboratory and other  facilities have been established in the NIOT Campus, Chennai.  

— Coastal Ocean Monitoring And Prediction System (COMAPS) This  programme has been in operation at 82 locations for collection and  analysis of 25 parametres relating to physical, chemical and  biological characteristics of water and sediments.  

— Based on the data collected through this project, the areas of  concern have been identified and steps are being taken to prevent  and control the causes of pollution by supplying the information to  the State Pollution Control Boards.  

— Coastal Zone Management The coastal degradation is a major  consideration in conservation context. The framework, which works  for the coastal conservation is Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ I and II)  and Ocean Regulation Zone (ORZ I and II). They work under the  guidance and legislation of Ministry of Environment and Forest. 

Ocean Development Plan, 2015  

The vision statement highlighting the Perspective Plan, 2015 for  ocean development was released in 2002-03. Its mission is to  improve our understanding of ocean, specially the Indian ocean, for  improving the livelihood, timely warning of coastal hazards and  sustainable development of ocean resources.  The vision is to improve our understanding of the ocean process  through conceiving and implementing long-term observational  programmes, so that, we are able to model sustainable uses of the  coastal zone for decision-making, forge partnership with our  neighbour through the concept of one ocean and secure recognition  for the interest of Indian and the Indian ocean in regional and  international bodies.  

Land Resources in India  

— India has about 43% of land in plain region,  which provides facilities for agriculture and  industry. 30% of total surface area is  mountainous which is source to most of the  perennial rivers in India and also provides  facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.  

— About 27% of the area is in plateau region that  provides rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels  and forests. And about 15% of the total  geographical area is mapped as wasteland in  India.  

Land resources in India are categorised as:  

— Forest land (23.05%)  

— Land not available for cultivation (14.2%)  

Other uncultivated lands  

— Permanent pastures and grazing land (3.4%) 

— Land under miscellaneous tree crops (1.1%)

— Culturable wasteland (4.2%)  

Fallow lands  

— Current fallow (4.8%) (left uncultivated for 1 or  less than 1 agricultural year)  

— Other than current fallow (3.4%) (more than 1 or  5 agricultural year)  

— Net sown area (46.2%) 

Land Use 

— Of India’s reporting area for land use statistics,  about 46% is under agriculture, 23% is forested  and 14% is not available for cultivation.  

— Roughly, 41 million hectares of land are  considered totally unfit (snow cover, desert) or  not available (urban use, rivers) for vegetation. 

— It is estimated that about 174 million hectares of  land (53%) suffers from different types and  varying degrees of degradation.  

Problems of Land  Resources in India  

— Conversion of good agricultural land into  industrial estates and for urban development.  

— Many executive directives, but no such strict law  to prevent change in land use.  

— Very limited land use planning.  

— Trend of rapid land degradation due to  salinisation, desertification and over exploitation. 

list of minerals in india

Minerals are the natural resources which are used in many industries as raw materials. Iron ore, manganese, bauxite, copper, etc. are such minerals. Minerals are of two types: metallic and nonmetallic. Iron ore and copper are metallic minerals while limestone and dolomite are non-metallic minerals. 

Metallic minerals are further subdivided into ferrous and non-ferrous minerals. Those metallic minerals which have iron content belong to ferrous group. The metallic minerals belonging to non-ferrous group do not have iron content. 

India is rich in iron, mica, manganese, bauxite; self sufficient in antimony, building materials, cement materials, clay, chromite, lime, dolomite, and gold, but deficient in copper, lead, mercury, zinc, tin, nickel, petroleum products, rock phosphate, sulphur, and tungsten. 

Mineral State/ Region 

Aluminium Kerala 

Antimony deposits are found in Punjab and Karnataka. 

Asbestos Karnataka and Rajasthan. 

Barytes (Barium Sulphate) Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Manbhum and Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand. 

Bauxite Ranchi and Palamau districts of Jharkhand, Belgaum, Jharia and Thana districts of Maharashtra, Balaghat, Jabalpur, Mandya and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh. 

Beryllium Sands Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Kashmir and Bihar. 

Cement Katni (M.P.), Lakheri (Rajasthan), Jabalpur (M.P.), Guntur (Andhra Pradesh), Jhinikapani (Singhbhum district of Jharkhand), Surajpur (Haryana). 

China Clay Rajmahal Hills, Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, Kerala. 

Chromite Singhbhum (Jharkhand) and Bhagalpur, Ratnagiri, Salem (Tamil Nadu), Karnataka, Keonjhar (Odisha), Ladakh (Kashmir). 

Coal Raniganj (West Bengal), Jharia, Bokaro (Jharkhand), Giridih, Karanpur, Panch Valley and Chanda (M.P.), Singareni (Telangana) and Mukum (Assam). 

Cobalt Rajasthan and Kerala. 

Copper Jharkhand (Singhbhum and Barajamda), Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan (Khetri).

Diamond Diamond mines are found in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh, Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. 

Feldspar Burdwan (West Bengal), Rewa (M.P.), Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu), Alwar and Ajmer. 

Gold Kolar gold-fields (Karnataka). 

Graphite Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Odisha and Kerala. 

Gypsum Bikaner and Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu), Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh. 

Iron Ore Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Chhattisgarh, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj (Odisha). 

Lac West Bengal. 

Lead Zawar in Udaipur and at the Banjavi mines in Jaipur. 

Lignite Neyveli in South Arcot district (Tamil Nadu). 

Limestone Singareni and Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Panchmahals (Gujarat), Balaghat, Bhandara, Chhindwara, Nagpur, Indore, Vishakhapatnam, Sandur (Tamil Nadu). 

Manganese Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. 

Marble Jaipur (Rajasthan). 

Mica Koderma in Hazaribagh district, Jharkhand, Munger (Bihar), Nellore in Andhra Pradesh. 

Monazite Sands Found in abundance in Travancore Coast (Kerala). 

Nitre Bihar, U.P., Tamil Nadu and Punjab. 

Petroleum Digboi, Badarpur, Musimpur and Patharia fields of Assam. 

Pitchblende Gaya (Bihar). Red Stone Jodhpur (Rajasthan). 

Salt Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan), and is also obtained from ocean water in Rann of Kutch, on the north-western and south-eastern littoral (sea-shore) of India. 

Saltpetre Punjab, U.P. and Bihar. 

Silmanite Khasi Hills (Assam), Rewa (M.P). Silver Goldfields (Karnataka), Singhbhum and Manbhum (Jharkhand), Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 

Tungsten Bihar, Nagpur (Maharashtra) and Marwar. Uranium Bihar Zinc Zawar mines in Udaipur (Rajasthan). 

Zircon Beach sands of Kerala and Cape Comorin. 

Thorium  Trivandrum (Kerala)

Red stone  Jodhpur (Rajasthan)

Tin  Hazaribagh (Bihar)

Heavy Water  Tuticorin, Kota

Zinc  Zawar mines (Udaipur)

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