Chapter 2 : Resources
Minerals are natural occurring substances having specific physical properties and chemical composition. Minerals are base for the development of economy of a country. India is endowed with variety of minerals which are concentrated in some regions of the country.
The Mineral Belts of India
Mineral and energy resources are the raw materials for most of the things we use. Human beings themselves are essential components of resources.
They transform material available in the environment into mineral and energy resources and use them.
More than 90% of our mineral wealth is concentrated in the Chota Nagpur plateau region. Over three-fourth of India’s reserves of coal are in Gondwana troughs. Madhya Pradesh carries good reserves of manganese ores, coal, limestone and bauxite.
Tamil Nadu has workable deposits of lignite, manganese, mica and limestone. Karnataka produces all the gold of India, besides iron, porcelain clays and chrome-ores. Andhra Pradesh has good reserves of inferior quality of coal and mica. Kerala possesses enormous concentration of heavy mineral sands. Rajasthan possesses copper, silver, lead, zinc, uranium, mica, precious stones and low grade coal. Gujarat and Assam produce petroleum. Gujarat also supplies about 90% of country’s flourite yield. Further, Assam has reserves of lignite. West Bengal supplies coal and iron ore.
National Mineral Policy 2019
The National Mineral Policy 2019 includes provisions which will give boost to mining sector.
Some of the provisions are:
Introduction of Right of First Refusal for RP/ PL holders.
Encouraging the private sector to take up exploration.
Encouragement of merger and acquisition of mining entities.
Creation of dedicated mineral corridors to boost private sector mining areas.
Proposes to grant status of industry to mining activity to boost financing of mining for private sector and for acquisitions of mineral assets in other countries by private sector.
It also mentions that long term import-export policy for mineral will help private sector in better planning and stability in business.
The policy also mentions rationalisation of reserved areas given to PSUs which have not been used should be rationalised and to put these areas to auction, which will give more opportunity to private sector for participation.
The policy also mentions to make efforts to harmonise taxes, levies and royalty with world benchmarks to help private sector.
Distribution of Minerals
About 80% of the total iron ore reserve of the country is the haematite. At present, India is the fourth largest iron ore producing country of the world.
The major iron ore producing regions of the country are Gurumahisani, Sulepat and Badam Pahar in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha; Baramjader group extended in Keonjhar and Sundargarh districts of Odisha, Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, The extracts of iron ore are found in Bailadila of Bastar district in Chhattisgarh; Sandur hills at Bellary Hospet region and Bababudan hills at Chikmanglur district in Karnataka.
It occurs mainly in the Dharwar system of rocks; this is one of the major raw materials used in iron and steel industry.
The major manganese regions are Keonjhar and Koraput region in Odisha; Balaghat and Chhindwara in Madhya Pradesh; Nagpur and Bhandara in Maharashtra; Panchmahal in Gujarat; Vishakhapatnam and Srikakulam in Andhra Pradesh; Singhbhum in Jharkhand; Udaipur and Banswara in Rajasthan.
The major copper producing regions are Singhbhum in Jharkhand; Jhunjhunu, Bhilwara, Alwar and Udaipur in Rajasthan; Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh; Guntur and Nellore districts in Andhra Pradesh. The Khetri mine in Rajasthan has been a major copper extracting region, since the age of Indus valley civilisation.
Aluminium is extracted from the bauxite ore. The major bauxite extracting regions in India are Ranchi and Palamau in Jharkhand; Surguja, Kabirdham and Bastas in Chhattisgarh; Shahdol and Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh; Kolaba, Thane and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra; Belgaum and Bababudan hills in Karnataka; Palni, Javdi and Shevaroy hill regions in Tamil Nadu.
Presently, India is the sixth largest bauxite producer and has fourth largest bauxite reserves (4%) of the world.
The metal chromite is made with the mixture of iron and chromium and is used in refractive works and chemical industries.
The largest producer of chromite in the country is Odisha (90%). Here, Keonjhar and Cuttack districts are important in this regard. The other chromite extracting regions are Chitradurga and Hassan in Karnataka, Ratnagiri and Bhandara in Maharashtra, Singhbhum in Jharkhand and Kondapalli in Andhra Pradesh. India is the third largest chromite producing country of the world.
This is the purest form of carbon and is the hardest substance found in the nature. At present, Madhya Pradesh is the most important state in terms of diamond extraction. Here, the major diamond mines are in Panna and Satna districts.
Raichur and Gulberg of Karnataka and Anantapur and Krishna basin of Andhra Pradesh are other regions.
Mica’s insulating properties have made it a valuable mineral in electronics industry. Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan respectively are its major producers. India is the largest producer of mica in the world (60% of world production). The maximum portion of the country production is meant for export.
This is used in the production of fertilisers, cement, sulphur etc. It is formed in the sedimentary rocks. Its largest producer is Rajasthan (90%).
The largest producing region in Rajasthan is Hanumangarh district. The other districts where gypsum is found are Bikaner, Jodhpur, Nagpur and Jaisalmer. Also, gypsum is producer in Doda district in Jammu and Kashmir and Kutch district in Gujarat.
In India, uranium is found in the rocks of Dharwar and Archean series, pegmatite, monazite sands (largest source) and cheralite. India produces about 2% of world’s uranium.
The most important region for uranium mining is the Jaduguda region of Singhbhum district in Jharkhand. The other regions where it is found are Nellore in Andhra Pradesh, Jaipur in Rajasthan.
The newly found Tummalapalle uranium reserves in Andhra Pradesh is found to be one of the biggest uranium reserves in the world.
India possess largest deposits of thorium reserves in the world, followed by Brazil, Australia and USA. If the proper technology is developed, the thorium deposits can fulfill the power requirements of India permanently.
It is extracted from the monazite sand which are formed by the disintegration of Precambrian rocks. These monazite extracts are mainly found in coastal region of Kerala.
The main power resources of India are coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. In recent years, the development of non-conventional sources of energy is also getting increasing attention of the planners. Generation of nuclear power is being geared up to contribute significantly to the overall availability of energy.
Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional.
These resources are non-renewable and ecologically hazardous. Some conventional sources of energy are:
Coal in India is geologically classified into two categories, namely Gondwana and Tertiary. Gondwana coal accounting for 98% of the total reserves and 99% of total production of coal in India. 80 out of 113 major coal fields are located in the rock systems of the lower Gondwana age. Tertiary coal bears coal of younger age, mainly confined to the extra peninsular region. This coal has low carbon and high percentage of moisture and sulphur.
Raniganj located in upper valley of Damodar river, is the most important and the largest coal area of India. It produces about 35% of the total coal production.
A good quality of bituminous coal is found in Jhariya, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura, Ramgarh etc., of Jharkhand. Tatapani Ramkola of Chhattisgarh, Talcher coal area of Odisha (Brahmani river valley) and Singreni coal area (Krishna Godavari river valley) of telengana are other major important areas of coal.
Tertiary coal is found in Neyveli (Tamil Nadu, famous for lignite) and Palana (Rajasthan). It is estimated that the largest reserve of lignite is in Mannargudi of Tamil Nadu.
The main regions of Gondwana rocks are found in West Bengal, Jharkhand and Odisha from where 76% of the total coal is produced.
Three main oil regions from where mineral oil is found are as follows:
(i) Assam region It is a country’s most important and ancient oil region. Its main areas are Digboi, Naharkatiya and MoranHugrijan field. Natural gas is also found in Moran- Hugrijan area. Arunachal Pradesh has oil reserves at Manabhum, Kharsang and Charali, in Tripura, Mamunbhanga, Manu, AmarpurDambur areas.
(ii) Gujarat region The major oil regions in Gujarat are Gulf of Khambhat and Ankleshwar while oil regions are extended upto Navgaon, Kosamba, Olpad, Dholka, Mehsana, Kalal etc.
(iii) Mumbai high region Mumbai high region, 176 km away from the Mumbai coast, is also an important oil region. From here, the mineral oil has been extracted since 1975. Basin located South of Mumbai High also has significant oil reserves. At present, mineral oil is also extracted from the region offshore in Krishna-Godavari river valley.
Oil Refineries There are a total of 22 refineries in India: 17 in the public sector, 3 in the private sector and 2 as joint venture.
Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPPs)
◆ Ministry of Power, Government of India has launched a unique initiative in 2005-06 under the provision of the Electricity Act 2003 to facilitate the development of Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPPs) each having a capacity of about 4000 MW, at both the coal pitheads and coastal locations aimed at delivering power at competitive cost to consumers by achieving economies of the scale.
◆ The Central Government in order to award the projects to different players has taken a tariff based competitive bidding route using super critical technology on Build, Own and Operate (BOO) basis. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) is the technical partner and Power Finance Corporation (PFC) under the Ministry at Power is the nodal agency.
◆ In total, 16 UMPPs have been envisaged, out of which four have already been awarded. These are:
— Sasan Power Limited, Sasan UMPP, Madhya Pradesh
— Coastal Gujarat Power Limited, Mundra UMPP, Gujarat
— Coastal Andhra Power Limited, Krishnapatnam UMPP, Andhra Pradesh
— Jharkhand Integrated Power Limited, Tilaiya UMPP, Jharkhand
At present production of natural gas is at the level of around 87 million standard cubic meters per day. The main producers of natural gas are Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC), Oil India Limited (OIL) and JVs of Tapti, Panna-Mukta and Ravva.
Almost 70% of India’s natural gas reserves are found in the Bombay High basin and in Gujarat. Offshore gas reserves are also located in Andhra Pradesh coast (Krishna-Godavari basin) and Tamil Nadu coast (Cauvery basin). Onshore reserves are located in Gujarat and North-Eastern states (Assam and Tripura).
Natural gas has been utilised in Assam and Gujarat since the 60s. There was a major increase in the production and utilisation of natural gas in the late 70s with the development of the Bombay High fields and again in the late 80s, when the South Basin field in the Western offshore was brought to production.
Natural gas is currently the source of the LPG produced in the country. LPG is now being extracted from gas at Duliajan in Assam, Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh, Hazira and Vaghodia in Gujarat, Uran in Maharashtra, Pata in Uttar Pradesh and Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu.
Non-Conventional or Renewable Resources
The spectrum on renewable energy sources covers solar energy, wind energy, biomass, hydropower and hydrogen on one side and the new techniques, such as, fuel cells, electric vehicles, ocean energy, geothermal energy etc., on other side. These sources besides being renewable are also non-polluting and environment-friendly.
Total Renewable Energy Installed Capacity
Source Total Installed Capacity (MW)
Wind Power 36,625
Solar Power 29,410
Small Hydropower 4,593
Biomass Power and Bagasse Cogeneration 9,103
Waste to Power 138
According to an estimate, India has a non-conventional energy potential of 195000 MW. The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) created in 1992, is the nodal agency of the Government of India for all matters relating to non-conventional/renewable energy; the promotional and financial aspects are looked after by the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA). Some renewable resources are given here:
The present Wind Energy Programme is aimed at the development of cost-efficient technology for harnessing the vast potential in the country. Wind survey projects are under various stages of implementation in 22 states of the country. Domestic policy support for wind power has led India to become the country with the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. China is the leading wind power producer followed by USA, Germany and Spain.
A Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-Wind) is being set-up in Chennai, along with a Wind Turbine Test Station at Kayattar (Tamil Nadu).
The Union Power Ministry has extended waiver of inter-state power transmission charges and losses for solar and wind power projects commissioned till 31st March, 2022 in order to give boost to clean energy sources.
Owing to its location on the Tropic of Cancer, India is fortunate enough to receive higher amount of solar energy which is equivalent to 5000 trillion kwh per year. Most parts of the country have 300 clear sunny days in a year and it is possible to generate 20 MW solar power per square kilometer of land area.
Even during the minimum availability of radiation in the month of December, the average amount of solar energy is about 500 calories per sq cm per day. In India, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Ladakh are the ideal areas for the development of solar energy.
World‘s largest solar steam cooking system for 15000 people’s meal has been installed at Tirumala (Andhra Pradesh). Dish solar cookers are being promoted in villages. Solar air heating system is being popularised for drying of agricultural and industrial products.
Solar Power Projects Announced in November 2009, the Government of India proposed to launch its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change with plans to generate 1000 MW of power by 2013 and up to 20000 MW grid-based solar power 2000 MW of off-grid solar power and cover 20 million sq metres with collectors by the end of the final phase of the mission in 2020. The mission aims to achieve grid parity (electricity delivered at the same cost and quality as that delivered on the grid) by 2020.
In May 2011, India’s first 5 MW of installed capacity solar power project was registered under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The project is in Sivaganga district, Tamil Nadu.
Gujarat has been a leader in solar power generation and contributes two-third of the 900 MW of photovoltaics in the country. The state has commissioned Asia’s biggest solar park at Charanka village. The park is already generating 214 MW solar power out of its total planned capacity of 500 MW. With a view to make Gandhinagar a solar city, the State Government has launched a Roof-Top Solar Power Generation Scheme.
The French group AREVA Solar, is currently engaged in constructing a 250 MW Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) installation which will become the largest CSP installation in Asia. A 4000 MW Ultra Mega Green Solar Power Project is being built near Sambhar lake in Rajasthan.
The Shakti Sthala Solar Park having total capacity of 2,000 megawatts (MW) was launched in March, 2018 in Tumkur district of Karnataka. It is world’s largest solar park. The park ties in with Central Government’s scheme to generate 100 gigawatts (GW) of solar power by 2020.
Large scale solar energy collector is called as solar pond. India is a first Asian country to establish a solar pond in Bhuj, Gujarat.
Bio-Energy or Biomass
Bio-energy is the energy derived from conservation of biomass, where biomass may be used directly as fuel on processed into liquids and gases, which can play a significant role in providing solution to rural energy crisis. It is a clean and cheap source of energy which improves sanitation and hygiene, removes the drudgery of women folk and produces enriched organic manure for use in agriculture.
Biomass may be obtained through bio-degradable materials, like animal dung, human night-soil, kitchen wastes, water hyacinth, agricultural residues and city wastes etc.
India has favourable sites in the Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kachchh and the estuary of Hugli with total estimated potential of 1000 MW.
The output of ocean energy is higher during monsoon period and along the West coast than during the post monsoon period and along the East coast. The main
problem in exploiting the ocean energy for power generation is the high cost involved in the construction of civil works and also the problem of firming up the fluctuation energy ouput.
— It is the heat energy in the Earth’s intention. The total potential for geothermal energy in India is about 600 MW which is equivalent to about 5130 million tonnes of coal. Hot water springs geothermal energy could be tapped from hot water springs.
— Prospective areas for such energy lie in the North-West Himalayan ranges (Puga valley in Jammu and Kashmir and Manikaran area in Himachal Pradesh), West coast running through Maharashtra and Gujarat, the Narmada-Son valley and the Damodar valley.
— Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources of electricity.
— In October 2010, India announced its updated plan to reach a nuclear power capacity of 63000 MW by 2032.
— India aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear power by 2050. Because India is non-signatory to the Nuclear Non- proliferation Treaty due to its weapons programme, it was for 34 years largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which has hampered its development of civil nuclear energy until 2009. Due to these trade bans and lack of indigenous uranium, India has uniquely been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
The average annual water availability of the country is assessed as 1869 Billion Cubic Metres (BCM), of this total utilisable water resource is assessed as 1123 BCM, of which 690 BCM is surface water and 433 BCM replenishable groundwater resources. With the growing population, the per capita availability of water at the national level has been reduced from 5177 cubic metres in 1951 to the estimated level of 1800 cubic metres in 2005, with variation in water availability in different river basins. Water resources are as follows:
— Surface water In India, surface flow takes place through 14 major river systems and 48 medium river systems. They share 83% of the drainage basin. The surface flow is further enlarged by addition of about 450 cubic kilometre of freshwater from groundwater flow while about 50 cubic kilometre are added to run-off from irrigated areas.
— Groundwater Groundwater resource are abundant only in the Northern and coastal plains. Underground reservoir of fresh water is called aquifers. Presently, about 25% of the groundwater is being used. Agriculture uses maximum amount of groundwater.
— Rainwater India receives about 3 trillion cubic metre3 of water from rainfall. This is a huge resource and perhaps largest in the world. However, almost 90% of this precipitation falls between mid-June and October, out of which India utilises only 10%.
Inter Linking of rivers in India The interlinking of the rivers in India is an initiative of the government in order to transfer the surplus water from Northern Indian rivers to the water deficit areas of the Southern India by linking the rivers of North and South India.
The rationale behind these initiatives are:
— Unevenly distributed surface water of India.
— Himalayan rivers are perennial and Peninsular rivers are seasonal.
— Flood problems of North and drought problems of South, India can also be solved by linking the rivers.
National Perspective Plan
National Water Development Agency (NWDA), Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India in 1980, finally come out with National Perspective Plan for the water resources development. The outline of this projects has two components. These are
1. Himalayan rivers development
2. Peninsular rivers development
The Himalayan rivers development envisages construction of storage reservoirs on the main Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers and their principal tributaries along with the inter-linking canal system to transfer surplus flow of the Eastern tributaries of the Ganga to the West, apart from the linking of the main Brahmaputra with the Ganga.
The Peninsular rivers development is divided into major parts, These are:
(a) Interlinking of Mahanadi-Godavari-Krishna and Pennar-Cauvery
(b) Interlinking of West flowing rivers, North of Mumbai and South of Tapi
(c) Ken-Chambal link
Sagarmala National Perspective Plan 2016
The Sagarmala programme, led by the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways, aims to the focus area in port connectivity, where over 80 projects are being planned. These include connectivity infrastructure projects like a heavy-haul rail corridor to evacuate large volumes of coal, freight-friendly expressways to enable efficient movement of containers on key routes and the development of strategic inland waterways. The other set of projects aims to tap into the potential of port-led industrialization to boost industrial and export growth along the coastline. This will be realized through 14 Coastal Economic Zones (CEZs) along the coastline. Finally, the potential of coastal communities will be harnessed by focussed skill-development to support port-led industrialization.
Development and Management of Water Resources Water is a cyclic resource, which can be used again and again after cleaning. Therefore, the best way to conserve it, is its judicious use.
Rainwater Harvesting It is one of the most effective methods of water management and water conservation. The term is used to indicate the collection and storage of rainwater used for human, animal and plant needs. It involves the collection and storage of rainwater at the surface or in sub-surface aquifier. Artificial recharge to groundwater is a process by which the groundwater reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that under natural conditions of replenishment.
The targeted areas for rainwater harvesting are:
— Where groundwater level are declining at a regular basis.
— Where substantial amount of aquifier has been desaturated.
— Where availability of the groundwater is inadequate in lean months.
India has a long coastline of more than 7500 km. Its marine resources are spread over in the Indian ocean, Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal. The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the country has an area of 2.02 million square kilometre comprising 0.86 million square kilometre on the West coast, 0.56 million square kilometre on the East coast and 0.6 million square kilometre around the Andaman and Nicobar islands.
The East coast supports activities such as agriculture and aquaculture, while a number of industries are supported on the West coast. Tourism has emerged as a major economic activity in coastal states such as Goa, Kerala and Odisha.
Fisheries in the Indian marine environment comprise 15 pelagic and the same number of demersal fisheries. Marine fish production from capture fisheries in India has increased by about six-fold during the past six decades.
India is a major seafood exporting country. Export earnings from the marine sector crossed 12000 crore in 2010-11. Marine products are now exported from India to nearly 100 countries. About 1 million people in 3651 villages of India situated along the coast are employed in marine capture fisheries.
Mangrove cover in India has been estimated at approximately 315000 hectare confined mainly along the East (Odisha and West Bengal) coast and Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Coral reefs are found in the Palk Bay, Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kutch, Central West coast of India, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands and recently, reported from the Maharashtra coast.
Development of Drugs from Ocean in India
The Indian programme in this field is servicing ongoing projects at different research and development laboratories. The Nodal Institute, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow have been entrusted with the responsibility of coordination and implementation. A Mission Mode Programme on the development of drugs from sea has been initiated, which focus on product development in major areas, such as anti-anxiety, larvicidal, anti-diabetic, anti- bacterial, anti-tumor/cancer and antihyperlipidemic.
Polymetallic Nodules Programme Polymetallic nodules is like jewel in a shrine. They contain magnesium, copper, nickel, cobalt, mollybdenum, iron, lead, cadmium and vanadium.
India has got rights of about 75000 square kilometre in Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) for harnessing these nodules lying on the seabed at 4000 m to 6000 m water depth. The Polymetallic Nodules Programme consists of four components, which are:
(i) Survey and exploration
(ii) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
(iii) Technology development (mining)
(iv) Metallurgy (extraction of element)
Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) This programme has two components, namely:
— Capacity building and development of infrastructure for research and development, survey and training for ICMAM. This first component covers four activities:
(i) Development of GIS based information system for 11 critical habitats in the coastal and marine areas in India.
(ii) Determination of waste assimilation capacity at selected estuaries along coastal areas of India.
(iii) Development of guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment.
(iv) Preparation of Model Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Plans.
— Under the component on infrastructure, training, laboratory and other facilities have been established in the NIOT Campus, Chennai.
Coastal Ocean Monitoring And Prediction System (COMAPS) This programme has been in operation at 82 locations for collection and analysis of 25 parametres relating to physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water and sediments.
Based on the data collected through this project, the areas of concern have been identified and steps are being taken to prevent and control the causes of pollution by supplying the information to the State Pollution Control Boards.
Coastal Zone Management The coastal degradation is a major consideration in conservation context. The framework, which works for the coastal conservation is Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ I and II) and Ocean Regulation Zone (ORZ I and II). They work under the guidance and legislation of Ministry of Environment and Forest.
Ocean Development Plan, 2015
The vision statement highlighting the Perspective Plan, 2015 for ocean development was released in 2002-03. Its mission is to improve our understanding of ocean, specially the Indian ocean, for improving the livelihood, timely warning of coastal hazards and sustainable development of ocean resources. The vision is to improve our understanding of the ocean process through conceiving and implementing long-term observational programmes, so that, we are able to model sustainable uses of the coastal zone for decision-making, forge partnership with our neighbour through the concept of one ocean and secure recognition for the interest of Indian and the Indian ocean in regional and international bodies.
Land Resources in India
India has about 43% of land in plain region, which provides facilities for agriculture and industry. 30% of total surface area is mountainous which is source to most of the perennial rivers in India and also provides facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
About 27% of the area is in plateau region that provides rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels and forests. And about 15% of the total geographical area is mapped as wasteland in India.
Land resources in India are categorised as:
Forest land (23.05%)
Land not available for cultivation (14.2%)
Other uncultivated lands
Permanent pastures and grazing land (3.4%)
Land under miscellaneous tree crops (1.1%)
Culturable wasteland (4.2%)
Current fallow (4.8%) (left uncultivated for 1 or less than 1 agricultural year)
Other than current fallow (3.4%) (more than 1 or 5 agricultural year)
Net sown area (46.2%)
Of India’s reporting area for land use statistics, about 46% is under agriculture, 23% is forested and 14% is not available for cultivation.
Roughly, 41 million hectares of land are considered totally unfit (snow cover, desert) or not available (urban use, rivers) for vegetation.
It is estimated that about 174 million hectares of land (53%) suffers from different types and varying degrees of degradation.
Problems of Land Resources in India
Conversion of good agricultural land into industrial estates and for urban development.
Many executive directives, but no such strict law to prevent change in land use.
Very limited land use planning.
Trend of rapid land degradation due to salinisation, desertification and over exploitation.
list of minerals in india
Minerals are the natural resources which are used in many industries as raw materials. Iron ore, manganese, bauxite, copper, etc. are such minerals. Minerals are of two types: metallic and nonmetallic. Iron ore and copper are metallic minerals while limestone and dolomite are non-metallic minerals.
Metallic minerals are further subdivided into ferrous and non-ferrous minerals. Those metallic minerals which have iron content belong to ferrous group. The metallic minerals belonging to non-ferrous group do not have iron content.
India is rich in iron, mica, manganese, bauxite; self sufficient in antimony, building materials, cement materials, clay, chromite, lime, dolomite, and gold, but deficient in copper, lead, mercury, zinc, tin, nickel, petroleum products, rock phosphate, sulphur, and tungsten.
Mineral State/ Region
Antimony deposits are found in Punjab and Karnataka.
Asbestos Karnataka and Rajasthan.
Barytes (Barium Sulphate) Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Manbhum and Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand.
Bauxite Ranchi and Palamau districts of Jharkhand, Belgaum, Jharia and Thana districts of Maharashtra, Balaghat, Jabalpur, Mandya and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh.
Beryllium Sands Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Kashmir and Bihar.
Cement Katni (M.P.), Lakheri (Rajasthan), Jabalpur (M.P.), Guntur (Andhra Pradesh), Jhinikapani (Singhbhum district of Jharkhand), Surajpur (Haryana).
China Clay Rajmahal Hills, Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, Kerala.
Chromite Singhbhum (Jharkhand) and Bhagalpur, Ratnagiri, Salem (Tamil Nadu), Karnataka, Keonjhar (Odisha), Ladakh (Kashmir).
Coal Raniganj (West Bengal), Jharia, Bokaro (Jharkhand), Giridih, Karanpur, Panch Valley and Chanda (M.P.), Singareni (Telangana) and Mukum (Assam).
Cobalt Rajasthan and Kerala.
Copper Jharkhand (Singhbhum and Barajamda), Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan (Khetri).
Diamond Diamond mines are found in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh, Raipur district of Chhattisgarh.
Feldspar Burdwan (West Bengal), Rewa (M.P.), Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu), Alwar and Ajmer.
Gold Kolar gold-fields (Karnataka).
Graphite Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Odisha and Kerala.
Gypsum Bikaner and Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu), Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh.
Iron Ore Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Chhattisgarh, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj (Odisha).
Lac West Bengal.
Lead Zawar in Udaipur and at the Banjavi mines in Jaipur.
Lignite Neyveli in South Arcot district (Tamil Nadu).
Limestone Singareni and Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Panchmahals (Gujarat), Balaghat, Bhandara, Chhindwara, Nagpur, Indore, Vishakhapatnam, Sandur (Tamil Nadu).
Manganese Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
Marble Jaipur (Rajasthan).
Mica Koderma in Hazaribagh district, Jharkhand, Munger (Bihar), Nellore in Andhra Pradesh.
Monazite Sands Found in abundance in Travancore Coast (Kerala).
Nitre Bihar, U.P., Tamil Nadu and Punjab.
Petroleum Digboi, Badarpur, Musimpur and Patharia fields of Assam.
Pitchblende Gaya (Bihar). Red Stone Jodhpur (Rajasthan).
Salt Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan), and is also obtained from ocean water in Rann of Kutch, on the north-western and south-eastern littoral (sea-shore) of India.
Saltpetre Punjab, U.P. and Bihar.
Silmanite Khasi Hills (Assam), Rewa (M.P). Silver Goldfields (Karnataka), Singhbhum and Manbhum (Jharkhand), Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.
Tungsten Bihar, Nagpur (Maharashtra) and Marwar. Uranium Bihar Zinc Zawar mines in Udaipur (Rajasthan).
Zircon Beach sands of Kerala and Cape Comorin.
Thorium Trivandrum (Kerala)
Red stone Jodhpur (Rajasthan)
Tin Hazaribagh (Bihar)
Heavy Water Tuticorin, Kota
Zinc Zawar mines (Udaipur)