Amendments of the Constitution of India

Amendments of the Constitution of India

As of January 2021, there have been 104 amendments of the Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950.

There are three types of amendments to the Constitution of India of which second and third type of amendments are governed by Article 368.

  • The first type of amendments includes that can be passed by “simple majority” in each house of the Parliament of India.
  • The second type of amendments includes that can be effected by the parliament by a prescribed “special majority” in each house; and
  • The third type of amendments includes those that require, in addition to such “special majority” in each house of the parliament, ratification by at least one half of the State Legislatures.

The third type amendments that are made to the constitution are amendments No. 3, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 51, 54, 61, 62, 70, 73, 74, 75, 79, 84, 88, 95, 99, 101, 102, 103 and 104.

Although constitutional amendments require the support of a two-thirds majority in both houses of Parliament (with some amendments requiring ratification by a majority of state legislatures), the Indian Constitution is the most amended national constitution in the world. The Constitution spells out governmental powers with so much detail that many matters addressed by statute in other democracies must be addressed via constitutional amendment in India. As a result, the Constitution is amended roughly twice a year.

No.AmendmentsEnforced sinceObjectivesPrime MinisterPresident
1st15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376.
Insert articles 31A and 31B.
Insert schedule 9.
10 May 1951Added special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes or for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs and STs). To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect against laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law.Jawaharlal NehruRajendra Prasad
2ndAmend article 81(1)(b).[6]1 May 1952Removed the upper population limit for a parliamentary constituency by amending Article 81(1)(b).
3rdAmend schedule 7.22 February 1954Re-enacted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule with relation to include trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of four classes of essential commodities, viz., foodstuffs, including edible oil seeds and oils; cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates; raw cotton whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seeds; and raw jute.
4thAmend articles 31, 35 band 305.
Amend schedule 9.
27 April 1955Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution.
5thAmend article 3.24 December 1955Empowered the President to prescribe a time limit for a State Legislature to convey its views on proposed Central laws relating to the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. Also permitted the President to extend the prescribed limit, and prohibited any such bill from being introduced in Parliament until after the expiry of the prescribed or extended period.
6thAmend articles 269 and 286.
Amend schedule 7.
11 September 1956Amend the Union List and State List with respect to raising of taxes.
7thAmend articles 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232.
Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A.
Amend part 8.
Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7.
1 November 1956Reorganisation of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union territories.
8thAmend article 334.5 January 1960Extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970.
9thAmend schedule 1.28 December 1960Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.
10thAmend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.
11 August 1961Incorporation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.
11thAmend articles 66 and 71.19 December 1961Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college.
12thAmend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.
20 December 1962Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.
13thAmend article 170.
Insert new article 371A.
1 December 1962Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
14thAmend articles 81 and 240.
Insert article 239A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
28 December 1962Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa.
15thAmend articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316.
Insert article 224A.
Amend schedule 7.
5 October 1963Raise retirement age of High Court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for rationalising interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.
16thAmend articles 19, 84 and 173.
Amend schedule 3.
5 October 1963Make it obliga tory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligatory templates.
17thAmend article 31A.
Amend schedule 9.
20 June 1963To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution.
18thAmend article 3.27 August 1966Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories.Lal Bahadur Shastri
19thAmend article 324.11 December 1966Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts.
20thInsert article 233A.22 December 1966Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to overcome the effect of judgment invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
21stAmend schedule 8.10 April 1967Include Sindhi as an official language.Indira Gandhi
22ndAmend article 275.
Insert articles 244A and 371B.
25 September 1969Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam.V. V. Giri
23rdAmend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334.23 January 1969Discontinued reservation of seats for the Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, both in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly and stipulated that not more than one Anglo-Indian could be nominated by the Governor to any State Legislative Assembly. Extend reservation for SCs and STs and Anglo Indian members in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 1980.
24thAmend articles 13 and 368.5 November 1971Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution.
25thAmend article 31.
Insert article 31C.
20 April 1971Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property. However, the Supreme Court quashed a part of Article 31C, to the extent it took away the power of judicial review. This was done in the landmark case of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973) 4 SCC 225 which for the first time enunciated the Basic structure doctrine.
26thAmend article 366.
Insert article 363A.
Remove articles 291 and 362.
28 December 1971Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic.
27thAmend articles 239A and 240.
Insert articles 239B and 371C.
15 February 1971Reorganisation of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers.
28thInsert article 312A.
Remove article 314.
29 August 1972Rationalise Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence.
29thAmend schedule 9.9 June 1972Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.
30thAmend article 133.27 February 1972Change the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law.
31stAmend articles 81, 330 and 332.17 October 1972Increase size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise.
32ndAmend article 371.
Insert articles 371D and 371E.
Amend schedule 7.
1 July 1973Protection of regional rights in Telangana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh.
33rdAmend articles 101 and 190.19 May 1974Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker.
34thAmend schedule 9.7 September 1974Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
35thAmend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 2A.
Insert schedule 10.
1 March 1975Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Uni on of India.
36thAmend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 371F.
Remove article 2A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
Remove schedule 10.
26 April 1975Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union.
37thAmend articles 239A and 240.3 May 1975Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly.
38thAmend articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359 and 360.1 June 1975Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances.
39thAmend articles 71 and 329.
Insert article 329A.
Amend schedule 9.
10 August 1975Amendment designed to negate the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s election to parliament. Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister. The amendment was introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha on 7 August 1975 and again introduced and passed in the Rajya Sabha on 8 August 1975. As many as 17 State Assemblies, summoned on Saturday, 9 August ratified this amendment and President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad gave his assent on Sunday, 10 August and the civil servants issued gazette notification on Sunday, 10 August 1975. As a consequence of this amendment to the Constitution of India, Supreme Court of India’s scheduled hearing on 11 August 1975 of Petition challenging Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s election became infructuous. Later however, Article 329A was struck down by the Supreme Court in case of State of Uttar Pradesh v. Raj Narain 1976 (2) SCR 347, for being in violation of basic structure.
40thAmend article 297.
Amend schedule 9.
27 May 1976Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India.Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.
41stAmend article 316.7 September 1976Raise Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Joint Public Service Commissions and State Public Service Commissions from sixty to sixty two.
42ndAmend articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368 and 371F.
Insert articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A.
Insert parts 4A and 14A.
Amend schedule 7.
2 November 1976Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi. Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a “Socialist Secular” Republic.However, the Supreme Court, in Minerva Mills v. Union of India, quashed the amendments to Articles 31C and 368 as it was in contravention with the basic structure of the Constitution.
43rdAmend articles 145, 226, 228 and 366.
Remove articles 31D, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A.
13 April 1977Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals some of the more ‘Anti-Freedom’ amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42.Morarji DesaiNeelam Sanjiva Reddy
44thAmend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360 and 371F.
Insert articles 134A and 361A.
Remove articles 31, 257A and 329A.
Amend part 12.
Amend schedule 9.
6 September 1978Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42.
45thAmend article 334.25 January 1980Extend reservation for SCs and STs and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990.Indira Gandhi
46thAmend articles 269, 286 and 366.
Amend schedule 7.
2 February 1982Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax.Zail Singh
47thAmend schedule 9.26 August 1984Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.
48thAmend article 356.26 August 1984Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to two years in the state of Punjab.
49thAmend article 244.
Amend schedules 5 and 6.
11 September 1984Recognise Tripura as a tribal state and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council.
50thAmend article 33.11 September 1984Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure.
51stAmend articles 330 and 332.29 April 1984Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh in Loksabha, similarly for Meghalaya and Arunachal in their Legislative Assemblies.
52ndAmend articles 10 1, 102, 190 and 191.
Insert schedule 10.
15 February 1985Anti Defection Law – Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other. However, parts of the 10th Schedule to the Constitution of India was struck down by the Supreme Court in the case of Kihoto Hollohan v. Zachillhu 1992 SCR (1) 686, for being in contravention with Article 368 of the Constitution.Rajiv Gandhi
53rdInsert article 371G.20 February 1986Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
54thAmend articles 125 and 221.
Amend schedule 2.
1 April 1986Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges and to provide for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment.
55thInsert article 371H.20 February 1987Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh.
56thInsert article 371I.30 May 1987Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa.
57thAmend article 332.21 September 1987Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies.R. Venkataraman
58thInsert article 394A.
Amend part 22.
9 December 1987Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution as on date and provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments.
59thAmend article 356.
Insert article 359A.
30 March 1988Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years in the state of Punjab, Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab.
60thAmend article 276.20 December 1988Profession Tax increased from a minimum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-.
61stAmend article 326.28 March 1989Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18.
62ndAmend article 334.20 December 1989Extend reservation for SCs and STs and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000.V. P. Singh
63rdAmend article 356.
Remove article 359A.
6 January 1990Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed.
64thAmend article 356.16 April 1990Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab.
65thAmend article 338.12 March 1990National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.
66thAmend schedule 9.7 June 1990Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.
67thAmend article 356.4 October 1990Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to four years in the state of Punjab.
68thAmend article 356.12 March 1991Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to five years in the state of Punjab.
69thInsert articles 239AA and 239AB.1 February 1991To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for National Capital Territory of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory.P. V. Narasimha Rao
70thAmend articles 54 and 239AA.21 December 1991Include National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in Electoral College for Presidential election.
71stAmend schedule 8.31 August 1992Include KonkaniManipuri and Nepali as official languages.Shankar Dayal Sharma
72ndAmend article 332.5 December 1992Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly.
73rdInsert part 9.24 April 1992Statutory provisions for Panchyat Raj as third level of administration in villages.
74th1 June 1992Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities.
75thAmend article 323B.15 May 1994Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals.
76thAmend schedule 9.31 August 1994Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution.
77thAmend article 16.17 June 1995A technical amendment to protect reservation to SCs and STs Employees in promotions.
78thAmend schedule 9.30 August 1995Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.
79thAmend article 334.25 January 2000Extend reservation for SCs and STs and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010.Atal Bihari VajpayeeK. R. Narayanan
80thAmend articles 269 and 270.
Remove article 272.
9 June 2000Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre.
81stAmend article 16.9 June 2000Protect SCs and STs reservation in filling backlog of vacancies.
82ndAmend article 335.8 September 2000Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SCs and STs candidates.
83rdAmend article 243M.8 September 2000Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions.
84thAmend articles 55, 81, 82, 170, 330 and 332.21 February 2002Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats.
85thAmend article 16.4 January 2002A technical amendment to protect Consequential seniority in case of promotions of SCs and STs Employees.
86thAmend articles 45 and 51A.
Insert article 21A.
12 December 2002Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six.A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
87thAmend articles 81, 82, 170 and 330.22 June 2003Extend the usage of 2001 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats.
88thAmend article 270.
Insert article 268A.
Amend schedule 7.
15 January 2004To extend statutory cover for levy and utilisation of Service Tax.
89thAmend article 338.
Insert article 338A.
28 September 2003The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
90thAmend article 332.28 September 2003Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area.
91stAmend articles 75 and 164.
Insert article 361B.
Amend schedule 10.
1 January 2004Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15% of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws.
92ndAmend schedule 8.7 January 2004Include BodoDogriSantali and Mathili as official languages.
93rdAmend article 15.20 January 2006To enable provision of reservation (27%) for Other Backward Class(OBCs) in government as well as private educational institutions.Manmohan Singh
94thAmend article 164.12 June 2006To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States including Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.
95thAmend article 334.25 January 2010To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs and Anglo-Indian in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years.Pratibha Patil
96thAmend schedule 8.23 September 2011Substituted “Od ia” for “Oriya”.
97thAmend Art 19 and added Part IXB.12 January 2012Added the words “or co-operative societies” after the word “or unions” in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies.The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.
98thTo insert Article 371J in the Constitution2 January 2013To empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region.Pranab Mukherjee
99thInsertion of new articles 124A, 124B and 124C. Amendments to Articles 127, 128, 217, 222, 224A, 231.13 April 2015Formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission. 16 State assemblies out of 29 States including GoaRajasthanTripuraGujarat and Telangana ratified the Central Legislation, enabling the President of India to give assent to the bill. The amendment was struck down by the Supreme Court on 16 October 2015.Narendra Modi
100thAmendment of First Schedule to Constitution1 August 2015Exchange of certain enclave territories with Bangladesh and conferment of citizenship rights to residents of enclaves consequent to signing of Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) Treaty between India and Bangladesh.
101stAddition of articles 246A, 269A, 279A. Deletion of Article 268A.Amendment of articles 248, 249, 250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366, 368, Sixth Schedule, Seventh Schedule.1 July 2017Introduced the Goods and Services Tax.
102ndAddition of articles 338B, 342A, and Added Clause 26C.Modification of articles 338, 366.11 August 2018Constitutional status to National Commission for Backward ClassesRam Nath Kovind
103rdAmendment to Article 15, added Clause [6],Amendment to Article 16, added Clause [6]12 January 2019A maximum of 10% Reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWSs) of citizens of classes other than the classes mentioned in clauses (4) and (5) of Article 15, i.e. Classes other than socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Inserted Clause [6] under Article 15 as well as Inserted Clause [6] under Article 16.
104thAmend article 334.25 January 2020To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty years. Removed the reserved seats for the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.

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