Amendments of the Constitution of India
As of January 2021, there have been 104 amendments of the Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950.
- The first type of amendments includes that can be passed by “simple majority” in each house of the Parliament of India.
- The second type of amendments includes that can be effected by the parliament by a prescribed “special majority” in each house; and
- The third type of amendments includes those that require, in addition to such “special majority” in each house of the parliament, ratification by at least one half of the State Legislatures.
The third type amendments that are made to the constitution are amendments No. 3, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 51, 54, 61, 62, 70, 73, 74, 75, 79, 84, 88, 95, 99, 101, 102, 103 and 104.
Although constitutional amendments require the support of a two-thirds majority in both houses of Parliament (with some amendments requiring ratification by a majority of state legislatures), the Indian Constitution is the most amended national constitution in the world. The Constitution spells out governmental powers with so much detail that many matters addressed by statute in other democracies must be addressed via constitutional amendment in India. As a result, the Constitution is amended roughly twice a year.
|No.||Amendments||Enforced since||Objectives||Prime Minister||President|
|1st||15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376.|
Insert articles 31A and 31B.
Insert schedule 9.
|10 May 1951||Added special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes or for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs and STs). To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect against laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law.||Jawaharlal Nehru||Rajendra Prasad|
|2nd||Amend article 81(1)(b).||1 May 1952||Removed the upper population limit for a parliamentary constituency by amending Article 81(1)(b).|
|3rd||Amend schedule 7.||22 February 1954||Re-enacted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule with relation to include trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of four classes of essential commodities, viz., foodstuffs, including edible oil seeds and oils; cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates; raw cotton whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seeds; and raw jute.|
|4th||Amend articles 31, 35 band 305.|
Amend schedule 9.
|27 April 1955||Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|5th||Amend article 3.||24 December 1955||Empowered the President to prescribe a time limit for a State Legislature to convey its views on proposed Central laws relating to the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. Also permitted the President to extend the prescribed limit, and prohibited any such bill from being introduced in Parliament until after the expiry of the prescribed or extended period.|
|6th||Amend articles 269 and 286.|
Amend schedule 7.
|11 September 1956||Amend the Union List and State List with respect to raising of taxes.|
|7th||Amend articles 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232.|
Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A.
Amend part 8.
Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7.
|1 November 1956||Reorganisation of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union territories.|
|8th||Amend article 334.||5 January 1960||Extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970.|
|9th||Amend schedule 1.||28 December 1960||Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.|
|10th||Amend article 240.|
Amend schedule 1.
|11 August 1961||Incorporation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.|
|11th||Amend articles 66 and 71.||19 December 1961||Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college.|
|12th||Amend article 240.|
Amend schedule 1.
|20 December 1962||Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.|
|13th||Amend article 170.|
Insert new article 371A.
|1 December 1962||Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A.||Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan|
|14th||Amend articles 81 and 240.|
Insert article 239A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
|28 December 1962||Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa.|
|15th||Amend articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316.|
Insert article 224A.
Amend schedule 7.
|5 October 1963||Raise retirement age of High Court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for rationalising interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.|
|16th||Amend articles 19, 84 and 173.|
Amend schedule 3.
|5 October 1963||Make it obliga tory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligatory templates.|
|17th||Amend article 31A.|
Amend schedule 9.
|20 June 1963||To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|18th||Amend article 3.||27 August 1966||Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories.||Lal Bahadur Shastri|
|19th||Amend article 324.||11 December 1966||Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts.|
|20th||Insert article 233A.||22 December 1966||Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to overcome the effect of judgment invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh.|
|21st||Amend schedule 8.||10 April 1967||Include Sindhi as an official language.||Indira Gandhi|
|22nd||Amend article 275.|
Insert articles 244A and 371B.
|25 September 1969||Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam.||V. V. Giri|
|23rd||Amend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334.||23 January 1969||Discontinued reservation of seats for the Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, both in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly and stipulated that not more than one Anglo-Indian could be nominated by the Governor to any State Legislative Assembly. Extend reservation for SCs and STs and Anglo Indian members in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 1980.|
|24th||Amend articles 13 and 368.||5 November 1971||Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution.|
|25th||Amend article 31.|
Insert article 31C.
|20 April 1971||Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property. However, the Supreme Court quashed a part of Article 31C, to the extent it took away the power of judicial review. This was done in the landmark case of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973) 4 SCC 225 which for the first time enunciated the Basic structure doctrine.|
|26th||Amend article 366.|
Insert article 363A.
Remove articles 291 and 362.
|28 December 1971||Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic.|
|27th||Amend articles 239A and 240.|
Insert articles 239B and 371C.
|15 February 1971||Reorganisation of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers.|
|28th||Insert article 312A.|
Remove article 314.
|29 August 1972||Rationalise Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence.|
|29th||Amend schedule 9.||9 June 1972||Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|30th||Amend article 133.||27 February 1972||Change the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law.|
|31st||Amend articles 81, 330 and 332.||17 October 1972||Increase size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise.|
|32nd||Amend article 371.|
Insert articles 371D and 371E.
Amend schedule 7.
|1 July 1973||Protection of regional rights in Telangana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh.|
|33rd||Amend articles 101 and 190.||19 May 1974||Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker.|
|34th||Amend schedule 9.||7 September 1974||Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.||Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed|
|35th||Amend articles 80 and 81.|
Insert article 2A.
Insert schedule 10.
|1 March 1975||Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Uni on of India.|
|36th||Amend articles 80 and 81.|
Insert article 371F.
Remove article 2A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
Remove schedule 10.
|26 April 1975||Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union.|
|37th||Amend articles 239A and 240.||3 May 1975||Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly.|
|38th||Amend articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359 and 360.||1 June 1975||Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances.|
|39th||Amend articles 71 and 329.|
Insert article 329A.
Amend schedule 9.
|10 August 1975||Amendment designed to negate the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s election to parliament. Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister. The amendment was introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha on 7 August 1975 and again introduced and passed in the Rajya Sabha on 8 August 1975. As many as 17 State Assemblies, summoned on Saturday, 9 August ratified this amendment and President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad gave his assent on Sunday, 10 August and the civil servants issued gazette notification on Sunday, 10 August 1975. As a consequence of this amendment to the Constitution of India, Supreme Court of India’s scheduled hearing on 11 August 1975 of Petition challenging Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s election became infructuous. Later however, Article 329A was struck down by the Supreme Court in case of State of Uttar Pradesh v. Raj Narain 1976 (2) SCR 347, for being in violation of basic structure.|
|40th||Amend article 297.|
Amend schedule 9.
|27 May 1976||Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India.Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|41st||Amend article 316.||7 September 1976||Raise Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Joint Public Service Commissions and State Public Service Commissions from sixty to sixty two.|
|42nd||Amend articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368 and 371F.|
Insert articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A.
Insert parts 4A and 14A.
Amend schedule 7.
|2 November 1976||Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi. Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a “Socialist Secular” Republic.However, the Supreme Court, in Minerva Mills v. Union of India, quashed the amendments to Articles 31C and 368 as it was in contravention with the basic structure of the Constitution.|
|43rd||Amend articles 145, 226, 228 and 366.|
Remove articles 31D, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A.
|13 April 1977||Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals some of the more ‘Anti-Freedom’ amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42.||Morarji Desai||Neelam Sanjiva Reddy|
|44th||Amend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360 and 371F.|
Insert articles 134A and 361A.
Remove articles 31, 257A and 329A.
Amend part 12.
Amend schedule 9.
|6 September 1978||Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42.|
|45th||Amend article 334.||25 January 1980||Extend reservation for SCs and STs and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990.||Indira Gandhi|
|46th||Amend articles 269, 286 and 366.|
Amend schedule 7.
|2 February 1982||Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax.||Zail Singh|
|47th||Amend schedule 9.||26 August 1984||Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|48th||Amend article 356.||26 August 1984||Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to two years in the state of Punjab.|
|49th||Amend article 244.|
Amend schedules 5 and 6.
|11 September 1984||Recognise Tripura as a tribal state and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council.|
|50th||Amend article 33.||11 September 1984||Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure.|
|51st||Amend articles 330 and 332.||29 April 1984||Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh in Loksabha, similarly for Meghalaya and Arunachal in their Legislative Assemblies.|
|52nd||Amend articles 10
1, 102, 190 and 191.|
Insert schedule 10.
|15 February 1985||Anti Defection Law – Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other. However, parts of the 10th Schedule to the Constitution of India was struck down by the Supreme Court in the case of Kihoto Hollohan v. Zachillhu 1992 SCR (1) 686, for being in contravention with Article 368 of the Constitution.||Rajiv Gandhi|
|53rd||Insert article 371G.||20 February 1986||Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.|
|54th||Amend articles 125 and 221.|
Amend schedule 2.
|1 April 1986||Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges and to provide for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment.|
|55th||Insert article 371H.||20 February 1987||Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh.|
|56th||Insert article 371I.||30 May 1987||Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa.|
|57th||Amend article 332.||21 September 1987||Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies.||R. Venkataraman|
|58th||Insert article 394A.|
Amend part 22.
|9 December 1987||Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution as on date and provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments.|
|59th||Amend article 356.|
Insert article 359A.
|30 March 1988||Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years in the state of Punjab, Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab.|
|60th||Amend article 276.||20 December 1988||Profession Tax increased from a minimum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-.|
|61st||Amend article 326.||28 March 1989||Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18.|
|62nd||Amend article 334.||20 December 1989||Extend reservation for SCs and STs and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000.||V. P. Singh|
|63rd||Amend article 356.|
Remove article 359A.
|6 January 1990||Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed.|
|64th||Amend article 356.||16 April 1990||Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab.|
|65th||Amend article 338.||12 March 1990||National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.|
|66th||Amend schedule 9.||7 June 1990||Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|67th||Amend article 356.||4 October 1990||Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to four years in the state of Punjab.|
|68th||Amend article 356.||12 March 1991||Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to five years in the state of Punjab.|
|69th||Insert articles 239AA and 239AB.||1 February 1991||To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for National Capital Territory of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory.||P. V. Narasimha Rao|
|70th||Amend articles 54 and 239AA.||21 December 1991||Include National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in Electoral College for Presidential election.|
|71st||Amend schedule 8.||31 August 1992||Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as official languages.||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|72nd||Amend article 332.||5 December 1992||Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly.|
|73rd||Insert part 9.||24 April 1992||Statutory provisions for Panchyat Raj as third level of administration in villages.|
|74th||1 June 1992||Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities.|
|75th||Amend article 323B.||15 May 1994||Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals.|
|76th||Amend schedule 9.||31 August 1994||Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution.|
|77th||Amend article 16.||17 June 1995||A technical amendment to protect reservation to SCs and STs Employees in promotions.|
|78th||Amend schedule 9.||30 August 1995||Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|79th||Amend article 334.||25 January 2000||Extend reservation for SCs and STs and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010.||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||K. R. Narayanan|
|80th||Amend articles 269 and 270.|
Remove article 272.
|9 June 2000||Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre.|
|81st||Amend article 16.||9 June 2000||Protect SCs and STs reservation in filling backlog of vacancies.|
|82nd||Amend article 335.||8 September 2000||Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SCs and STs candidates.|
|83rd||Amend article 243M.||8 September 2000||Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions.|
|84th||Amend articles 55, 81, 82, 170, 330 and 332.||21 February 2002||Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats.|
|85th||Amend article 16.||4 January 2002||A technical amendment to protect Consequential seniority in case of promotions of SCs and STs Employees.|
|86th||Amend articles 45 and 51A.|
Insert article 21A.
|12 December 2002||Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six.||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam|
|87th||Amend articles 81, 82, 170 and 330.||22 June 2003||Extend the usage of 2001 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats.|
|88th||Amend article 270.|
Insert article 268A.
Amend schedule 7.
|15 January 2004||To extend statutory cover for levy and utilisation of Service Tax.|
|89th||Amend article 338.|
Insert article 338A.
|28 September 2003||The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.|
|90th||Amend article 332.||28 September 2003||Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area.|
|91st||Amend articles 75 and 164.|
Insert article 361B.
Amend schedule 10.
|1 January 2004||Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15% of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws.|
|92nd||Amend schedule 8.||7 January 2004||Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Mathili as official languages.|
|93rd||Amend article 15.||20 January 2006||To enable provision of reservation (27%) for Other Backward Class(OBCs) in government as well as private educational institutions.||Manmohan Singh|
|94th||Amend article 164.||12 June 2006||To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States including Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.|
|95th||Amend article 334.||25 January 2010||To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs and Anglo-Indian in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years.||Pratibha Patil|
|96th||Amend schedule 8.||23 September 2011||Substituted “Od ia” for “Oriya”.|
|97th||Amend Art 19 and added Part IXB.||12 January 2012||Added the words “or co-operative societies” after the word “or unions” in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies.The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.|
|98th||To insert Article 371J in the Constitution||2 January 2013||To empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region.||Pranab Mukherjee|
|99th||Insertion of new articles 124A, 124B and 124C. Amendments to Articles 127, 128, 217, 222, 224A, 231.||13 April 2015||Formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission. 16 State assemblies out of 29 States including Goa, Rajasthan, Tripura, Gujarat and Telangana ratified the Central Legislation, enabling the President of India to give assent to the bill. The amendment was struck down by the Supreme Court on 16 October 2015.||Narendra Modi|
|100th||Amendment of First Schedule to Constitution||1 August 2015||Exchange of certain enclave territories with Bangladesh and conferment of citizenship rights to residents of enclaves consequent to signing of Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) Treaty between India and Bangladesh.|
|101st||Addition of articles 246A, 269A, 279A. Deletion of Article 268A.Amendment of articles 248, 249, 250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366, 368, Sixth Schedule, Seventh Schedule.||1 July 2017||Introduced the Goods and Services Tax.|
|102nd||Addition of articles 338B, 342A, and Added Clause 26C.Modification of articles 338, 366.||11 August 2018||Constitutional status to National Commission for Backward Classes||Ram Nath Kovind|
|103rd||Amendment to Article 15, added Clause ,Amendment to Article 16, added Clause ||12 January 2019||A maximum of 10% Reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWSs) of citizens of classes other than the classes mentioned in clauses (4) and (5) of Article 15, i.e. Classes other than socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Inserted Clause  under Article 15 as well as Inserted Clause  under Article 16.|
|104th||Amend article 334.||25 January 2020||To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty years. Removed the reserved seats for the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.|